Tag: Religion and Spirituality

MCBS Seminaries

Sanathana Divya Karunya Vidya Peetham, Thamarassery

Sanathana MCBS Seminary

P.B. No.05,Thamarassery – 673573

Calicut,Kerala.

Tel: 0495  2220931,2220932,2220930

Fax: 0495 2225688

Web : http://www.sanathana.wordpress.com

E-mail : sanathanadkv@gmail.com

Jeevalaya Institute of Philosophy, Bangalore

MCBS Novitiate House , Kanjirappally

MCBS Novitiate House , Chembery

MCBS Minor Seminary, Athirampuzha

MCBS Minor Seminary

Sreekandamangalam P.O.

Athiampuzha

Kottayam 686 562

Kerala, India

Ph. 0481 2730599, 2731882, 2731982

Email: mcbssem@sancharnet.in (Official)

mcbslisieux@live.in (Public)

Website: http://www.lisiuex.wordpress.com

MCBS Minor Seminary, Pariyaram

MCBS Mission Minor Seminary, Solapur

MCBS Mission Minor Seminary, Anappara

MCBS Study House, Kaduvakulam

MCBS Study House, Aluva

 

Formation Houses of MCBS

Sanathana Divya Karunya Vidya Peetham, Thamarassery

Sanathana MCBS Seminary

P.B. No.05,Thamarassery – 673573

Calicut,Kerala.

Tel: 0495  2220931, 2220932, 2220930

Fax: 0495 2225688

Web : http://www.sanathana.wordpress.com

E-mail : sanathanadkv@gmail.com

Jeevalaya Institute of Philosophy, Bangalore

MCBS Novitiate House , Kanjirappally

MCBS Novitiate House , Chembery

MCBS Minor Seminary, Athirampuzha

MCBS Minor Seminary

Sreekandamangalam P.O.

Athiampuzha

Kottayam 686 562

Kerala, India

Ph. 0481 2730599, 2731882, 2731982

Email: mcbslisieux@gmail.com (Official)

mcbslisieux@live.in (Public)

Website: http://www.lisiuex.wordpress.com

MCBS Minor Seminary, Pariyaram

MCBS Mission Minor Seminary, Solapur

MCBS Mission Minor Seminary, Anappara

MCBS Study House, Kaduvakulam

MCBS Study House, Aluva

Mar Jacob Muricken, Auxiliary Bishop of Palai

His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI has appointed Rev. Fr. Jacob Muricken as the Auxiliary Bishop of Palai.

This Ecclesiastical Provision was made public in Rome on Friday, 24th August, 2012, at noon local time, corresponding to 15:30 hrs.

The newly elected Auxiliary Bishop is assigned the Titular See of Tinis by the Holy Father.

He was in charge of the various Departments at Shalom Pastoral Centre, Co-ordination of various pastoral activities of the Eparchy, Priests‘ Homes, Ongoing formation of  priests, Forane monthly recollections of Priests, St. Ephrem Formation Centre, Seminarians on Regency in the diocese.

Rev. Fr. Jacob Muricken was born on 16th June, 1963 in the parish of Muttuchira of the Eparchy of Palai. He had his priestly formation at Vadavathoor and was ordained priest on 27th December, 1993. He served as Asst. Vicar at Kuravilangad, Vice-Rector of the Minor Seminary, Professor at Good Shepherd Minor Seminary, Karoor, Secretary to the Corporate Management of Schools, Vicar of Lourdu Matha Church, Chakampuzha and Vicar of St. Francis Xavier Church, Neeloor

Mar Jacob Muricken in his College days

MCBS Retreat Centeres

1. Divyakarunya Ashram, Thannipuzha, Kalady.

Phone: 08943566040,  0484

Director: Fr George Karintholil MCBS

Mob. 09447214994, 09745713249

Program: Arranged Retreats  on almost all the Weeks

                    One Day Program on Every Saturday

Yoga Retreats: Special Yoga Retreats also arranged here

Retreat Preacher – Fr Saiju Thuruthiyil (Mob.+919447913526)

Counseling & Confession on Monday Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday & Saturday

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2. Emmaus Retreat Centre, Mallapallay.

Director: Fr Eppachan Kizhakkethalackal MCBS

Mob. 09447661995, 09495683234

Ph. 0469 2680479

Programs:-

One day Retreats: Every Wednesday 9.00am – 3.00pm

Night Vigil: Every Thursday 6.00pm to Friday 6.00am

Counseling:  Tuesday & Friday 6.00am to 4.00pm

Confession: Every Day 6.00am to 8.00pm

Contact:-

Divyakarunya Mariyabhavan

Mallappally West P.O.,

Anickadu, Pathanamthitta – 689585

Ph. 0469 2680479

Email: mcbsdm@gmail.com

Web: www.mcbsdm.wordpress.com

Click here for Official Website

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3. Sannidhana Ashram, Illithode, Malayattoor

(Retreat center only for the Clergy & Religious Brothers)

Director: Fr Jose Paremmackal

Mob.

Ph. 0484 2468328

Program: Encourages Personal Retreats and Spiritual Guidance

Group retreats also can be arranged here.

Accommodation is limited to 18 – 21

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Good Shepherd Major Seminary, Kunnoth

Good Shepherd Major Seminary is the third major seminary of the Syro-Malabar Church. It was canonically erected at Kunnoth, Iritty, North Kerala, India, by the Synod of the Church on 1st September 2000 (Synodal Decree no. 2336/2000). The seminary was inaugurated on 16th June 2001. Even though India, particularly Kerala, had been the land of the Syro-Malabar Church, the Muslim invasion of the 18th century and certain actions of the Portuguese missionaries had reduced the area of the church to the southern part of Kerala.
In the 1940s, however, many Christians migrated from the Christian south of the state to the northern part of Kerala in search of a better life. This was followed by the erection of the Diocese of Tellicherry in 1953 for the immigrants of the region; many churches and church-schools were eventually established, and Christian institutions began to play an important role in the social life of the region. The presence of a live and active church immediately led the region to a phenomenal growth in all aspects of its life. Several dioceses were also eventually erected.
By this time several young people of the region, both men and women, were called by God to lead a consecrated life. It is noteworthy that in the last few decades, in the dioceses in Malabar, the Catholic Church could find more young people looking for consecrated life than any other part of the country or even in any other part of the world. The erection of the new major seminary in this region is in fact an ecclesiastical recognition to the region for the role it has been playing in the life of the universal church.

When the seminary was erected in 2000, the synod of the church had a plan that visualized a steady growth of the seminary that would complete its full structure in eight years. As the seminary accordingly began in June 2001, there were 21 students from eight dioceses admitted to the course of philosophy, and four resident members on the staff: the first rector was Rev. Dr. Joseph Kuzhinjalil, D.C.L. (Diocese of Palai); Frs. Simon Valloppilly (Diocese of Thamarassery), Thomas Neendoor (Archdiocese of Tellicherry), and Jose Vettickal (Archdiocese of Tellicherry) were the other resident staff. Including the non resident professors, in the teaching staff there were then 12 members.

Since the newly erected seminary had no house of its own, it began its life in a nearby house belonging to Nazareth Sisters. The foundation stone for the new seminary building was laid on 3rd August 2002; subsequently, the completed philosophy block was blessed on 18th June 2003 by His Beatitude Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil. The foundation stone for the theology block was blessed by His Beatitude Ignace Cardinal Moussa I Daoud, Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches Rome, on 10th January 2004, on the occasion of his visit to the seminary.

In the subsequent years after the inauguration, new batches of students were admitted, and more priests were added to the resident staff. At the same time some of the members in the staff returned to their dioceses. Frs. George Pulickal (Archdiocese of Tellicherry), Jose Pulavelil (Diocese of Palai), and Thomas Poovathanikunnel (Diocese of Kanjrappally) thus joined the resident staff in the academic year 2003-04. After completing a term as the rector and after finishing the construction work of the philosophy block, Very Rev. Fr. Kuzhinjalil, Finance Officer Fr. Vettickal, and Fr. Jose Pulavelil returned to their home dioceses.

Since May 31st 2004, Very Rev. Fr. George Pulickal had been serving as the acting rector and since 11th November 2004 he had been serving as the rector of the seminary.  In the same year Fr George Myladoor (Diocese of Mananthavady) was appointed as the finance officer of the seminary. Frs Paul Mudathotty (Missionary Society of St Thomas), Jose Muthanattu (diocese of Palai), and Thomas Kuzhuppil (Archdiocese of Changanassery) joined the resident staff in the academic year 2005-06; Frs. Jacob Chanikuzhy (Archeparchy of Ernakulam–Angamaly) and Thomas Padiyath (Archdiocese of Changanassery) joined the resident staff in the year 2006-07; Frs. George Mangalathil (Archdiocese of Changanassery) and Antony Tharekadavil (Archdiocese of Tellicherry) joined the resident staff in 2007-2008.

The construction of the beautiful chapel of the seminary was completed, and was consecrated on 26th July 2007. For the consecration ceremony, His Beatitude Mar Varkey Cardinal Vithayathil and several other bishops were present. On 29 January 2008, the first batch of the students, fourteen in all, received the holy order of M’samsanusa (diaconate) in the new chapel. The ordination ceremony was officiated by the convener of the ad hoc committee, His Grace Mar George Valiamattam together with His Grace Mar Joseph Powathil. On this occasion, twenty-three of the second batch also received their ordination as Heupadiyaknusa. In May 2008, Fr. Paul Mudathotty was elected as the Assistant General of the MST. He eventually left the seminary to enter upon the new office, while Fr Thomas Anikuzhikattil (Diocese of Idukki) joined the resident staff, who was subsequently appointed as the prefect of studies on 22 February 2009.

In the year 2008-2009, the first batch of 14 students got ordained priests for different eparchies, which was a landmark in the history of Good Shepherd Major Seminary. In the second batch, 22 students were ordained (2009-2010) and in the third batch 16 students (2010-2011). The list of these priest are available in the Alumni page.

In the beginning of the academic year 2009-2010 a new administrative body was appointed: Fr Joseph Muthanattu was appointed as the Finance Officer on 13 May 2009, Fr Thomas Anikuzhikattil as the Rector on 21 May 2009, and Fr George Mangalathil as the Prefect of Studies on 08 June 2009 in lieu of Frs George  Myladoor, George Pulickal, and Thomas Anikuzhikkattil respectively. After completing a term and another two years Fr George Pulickal left the seminary to take pastoral work in his own diocese, and Fr George Myladoor, after completing his term of office (Since 15t June 2004 till 15 May 2009), returned to his home diocese in May 2009. Fr Jose Koodapuzha from Diocese of Kanjirappally joined the resident staff in the academic year 2009-2010. In May 2010 Fr Sebastian Palakuzhy (Archdiocese of Tellicherry) was appointed Finance officer in lieu of Fr Jose Muthanattu, who was then relieved. Frs Joseph Mulanjanany (Diocese of Kothamangalam), Joseph Karukaparambil (Archdiocese of Kottayam)n and Mathew Pattamana (Archdiocese of Tellicherry) joined the resident staff in the beginning of the academic year 2010-2011.

On 3 May 2011, Fr Joseph Puthumana (Diocese of Palai) was added to the resident staff as professor of English and on 31 of the same month he was appointed vice-rector substituting Fr Thomas Kuzhuppil who was relieved. In the current academic year there are 16 members on the resident staff, 33 visiting professors, and 176 students.

Goal of the Seminary

The seminary wishes to train its students in such a way that they will become good pastors and ministers of the word of God. The Good Shepherd and Preacher Jesus Christ is the model after whom the candidate in the institute has to fashion himself (Ps 23:1; Jn 10:11). He should become a good and self-sacrificing leader of the Catholic Church. The people of God should feel safe under the protection of this shepherd of Jesus.

Giving personal attention to all the students is one of the main concerns of this institute.
The seminary therefore tries to create a home atmosphere in which all the students feel that their formation is safe under the guidance of the institute. Together with the intellectual training, they are given formation for spiritual and emotional growth: they are given three years of philosophy training which will be followed by an year of practical training and period of personal reflection (regency); then they will receive the clerical dress which will be followed by four years of biblical, theological, and pastoral studies.

Throughout the period of training, the students will get enough opportunities to form a personal prayer life, and to develop their personal talents.
The professors and the students together with their Good Shepherd are always in search of pastures which are the products of the ever changing periods of history. The candidates have to apply effectively their energies in order to form themselves for the church so that they can competently guide the people of God of the Catholic Chruch in India and abroad..

Click here for the Official Site of the Seminary

JDV Pune – Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth

Vision Statement

The mission of JDV is to foster an integral understanding of the human person which mediates the vision of Jesus for India.

This Vision Statement implies a whole series of objectives that JDV has set before itself, within an overarching interface of science, philosophy and religion.

As a basis, we shall need to evolve a philosophical vision of being human that will promote personal, social and ecological well-being. On the theological level, we will attempt to spell out Jesus’ vision for India, in the light of Scripture and Tradition. Contextualising this will demand processes of information, analysis and critical and creative reflection on the Indian reality, religious pluralism, the Christian Faith, and the relationship between science, society and religion. Such an inter-disciplinary perspective will enable us to articulate and develop an Indian Christian response to the situation of our country, with special reference to the oppressed and marginalized sections of our society, such as women and the poor.

In response to its vision, JDV will seek to promote dialogue among religions,cultures, communities and secular movements, all of which will be facilitated by a positive thrust towards inculturation. In our intra-Christian pluriform sphere, we shall strive to foster dialogue with other denominations, as well as communion among individual Catholic churches, motivated by a respectful recognition of other traditions. Finally, in its avowed aim of service to the Church in India, JDV will endeavour to form Christian leaders imbued with the outlook and motivational principles outlined above.

Motto

Paśyaty-ātmānam-ātmanā

The text is from the Mokṣadharma section of the Mahābhārata. Continuing a classical upaniṣadic thought, it speaks of seers who control their senses and imagination, and who are thus ready to ‘see’ (paśyati), that is, experience the Ātman (Self), not through their minds but through their own ātman (self). This‘seeing’ takes places in an atmosphere brightened ‘by the kindled light of insight.’ The fuller text reads: jñāna-dīpena dīptena paśyaty-ātmānam-ātmanā –“by the kindled light of insight, the seer sees the Self through his own self” (Mahābhārata 12.242.10ab).

Jñāna, in the context, means insight. “Vedanta obliges us to recognize in man a level of consciousness deeper than that of reflective thought, more basic than man’s awakening to himself through a sense-perception or mental activity” (Swami Abhishiktananda).

The education which Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth offers is meant to lead to this insight into the mystery of God. It then leads to action in the service of people.

Click here for the Official Site of the Seminary

History of MCBS

The Birth of Our Congregation:

….In the beginning of the twentieth century itself the Eucharistic-centered re-awakening in the life of the Church, initiated by the Holy Pope Pius X (1902-1914), had its impact on the Syro-Malabar Church . There was also a new missionary awareness and enthusiasm in this Apostolic Church . It was in this historical setting that the Missionary Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament (MCBS) was born.
….God has been preparing two great men (mahatmas) in the persons of Father Mathew Alakalam and Father Joseph Paredom to take up this new charism in the Church, who in fulfilment of their life-long religious and missionary aspirations outlined a new way of religious life in the Church: the Missionary Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament.
….In 1933, the jubilee year of the redemptive sacrifice of our Lord, on Sunday 7th May, the feast of St. Joseph ‘s patronage, in the mission church at Mallappally, Mar James Kalacherry, bishop of Changanacherry, established the Missionary Congregation of the Blessed

MCBS at a Glance

Members

490

Bishops

2

Priests

333

Brothers Co-operators

03

Major Seminarians

210

Novices

40

Minor Seminarians

175

Houses of Formation

10

Houses

60

Mission Centers

30

Mission Stations

40

Ayurveda Hospital

01

Centre for caring the poor and aged

5

Training Centre for Physically Handicapped

01

Children’s Homes

08

Dispensaries

12

Hospital

01

Centre for Caring for mentally handicapped

05

School for the mentally retarded

02

HIV- AIDS Hospital

01

Hostels

10

I.T.I

02

Printing Press

1

Publications

4

Nursery Schools

21

Retreat Centers

5

Schools

45

Self Help Groups

750

T. B. Sanitorium

1

Tailoring Schools

30

Training Centre for Deaf and Dump

1

Adult Education Cetres

24

 
   

MCBS ON THE ROAD TO GROWTH

….In 1978 , the district of Shimoga in Karnataka, under the jurisdiction of Mananthavady diocese, was entrusted to MCBS for pastoral care and evangelization.
….In 1989 the missionary activities of the congregation were extended to Rajasthan. The district of Sirohi is entrusted to the congregation for evangelization.
….The ‘Rule of Life’ of the congregation, revised and renewed after a careful study of the charism, nature, spirit, tradition and founders, and according to the directives given by the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, was promulgated on 25th May 1989. The Holy See approved the Rule of Life for an experimental period of seven years and raised the congregation to pontifical Status on 2nd December 1989.
….In 1992 the districts of Satara and Solapur in Maharashtra , under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Kalyan, were entrusted to the congregation for pastoral care and evangelization.
….On 4th May 1995 the congregation was divided into two regions, namely MCBS Emmaus Region and MCBS Zion Region.
….Jeevalaya, MCBS’ Major Seminary, was inaugurated on 3rd July 1996.
….Shencottai Mission in South Tamil Nadu under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Tukala was started in the year 1996 for the pastoral care of the poor and afflicted.
….On 2nd December 1996 the two regions were raised to the status of provinces, namely, MCBS Emmaus Province and MCBS Zion Province .

On 18th December 1996 Thomas Elavanal, then Superior General, was nominated the first bishop from the Congregation. Mar Thomas Elavanal was consecrated Bishop of Kalyan on 8th February 1997.

On 21st May 1997 the first Provincial synaxis of both provinces was held to elect the Provincial Superiors and their teams.

On 28th October 1998 the Holy See gave definite approbation to the Constitution and Directory of the MCBS.

‘SANATHANA’ MCBS Theologate, Thamarassery was inaugurated on June 07, 2004.

On 7th May 2007 , the Platinum Jubilee of the Congregation was inaugurated at Mother House, Kolladu, Kottayam.

On 28th July 2007 , Adilabad Mission , the first missionary field in Andrapradesh was started in the feast of Blessed Alphonsa

On 29th August, Fr. Joseph Arumachadath, the then Vice Rector of Sanathana MCBS Theologate, Thamarassery was nominated as the first bishop of the Bhadravati Diocese, Karnataka.

2007 September 08 – Missionaries to Switzerland .

On 25th October 2007 – Consecration of Mar Joseph Arumachadath and the inauguration of the Bhadravati Diocese, Karnataka

On 07th May 2008 – Platinum Jubilee celebrations of the Congregation came to its end at MCBS Generalate, Aluva.

Our Bishops
On 18th December 1996 Thomas Elavanal, then Superior General, was nominated the first bishop from the Congregation. Mar Thomas Elavanal was consecrated Bishop of Kalyan on 8th February 1997.

http://mcbsemmaus.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/clip_image001.jpg?w=180
Mar Thomas Elavanal

His Excellency Mar Thomas Elavanal, Bishop of Kalyan

On 29th August, Fr. Joseph Arumachadath, the then Vice Rector of Sanathana MCBS Theologate, Thamarassery was nominated as the first bishop of the Bhadravati Diocese,Karnataka. On 25th October 2007 – Consecration of Mar Joseph Arumachadath and the inauguration of the Bhadravati Diocese, Karnataka

Mar Joseph Arumachadath

His Excellency Mar Joseph Arumachadath, Bishop of Bhadravathy

ഞായറാഴ്ച പ്രസംഗങ്ങള്‍: Sunday Homilies / Sunday Sermons: Malayalam, English

Sunday Homilies in Malayalam (Syro-Malabar Rite)

സീറോ മലബാര്‍ പ്രസംഗങ്ങള്‍ മലയാളത്തില്‍

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Sunday Sermon in 8 Minutes 

ലൈഫ് ഡേ ഓൺലൈൻ 

അൽമായ വചനഭാഷ്യം

വചനനാളം – ദീപനാളം, പാലാ രൂപത

സണ്‍‌ഡേ പുൾപിറ്റ് – പാലക്കാട് രൂപത

ഹോമിലിറ്റിക്കോസ് – ഇരിങ്ങാലക്കുട രൂപത

ഇന്റർനെറ്റ്‌ മിഷൻ, സീറോ മലബാർ സഭ

വചനവേദി, സീറോമലബാർ കാറ്റകേസിസ് 

വചനദൂത് – എം. സി. ബി. എസ്.

വചനബോധി – കാരുണികൻ 

ദേവമാതാ പ്രോവിൻസ്, സി. എം. ഐ.

മംഗലപ്പുഴ സെമിനാരി, ആലുവ

ഗുഡ് ഷെപ്പേഡ് സെമിനാരി, കുന്നോത്ത്

എറണാകുളം-അങ്കമാലി അതിരൂപത

ഇടുക്കി രൂപത 

ഇരിങ്ങാലക്കുട രൂപത

Homily Collections

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Reference Sources

ഫ്രാൻസിസ് പാപ്പ: Malayalam Site of Pope Francis

Messages from Pope Francis (Video Clips)

Homilies for Feast Days

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മലങ്കര പ്രസംഗങ്ങള്‍ മലയാളത്തില്‍

Sunday Homilies in Malayalam (Malankara)

ലൈഫ് ഡേ ഓൺലൈൻ 

MCBS Karunikan

Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

_____________________________________________________________________________________

ലത്തീന്‍ പ്രസംഗങ്ങള്‍ മലയാളത്തില്‍

Sunday Homilies in Malayalam (Latin)

ലൈഫ് ഡേ ഓൺലൈൻ 

MCBS Karunikan

Diocese of Neyyattinkara

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Hindi Homilies / ഹിന്ദി പ്രസംഗങ്ങൾ / हिंदी धर्मगीत

Navachethana Hindi Homily

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Sunday Homilies in English (Latin)

Latin English Homilies (Video)

Navchethana Homilies

CBCI Homilies

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Homilies Net

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Light a Candle

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Evangeli Net

Catholic Web

_____________________________________________________________________________________

General Homilies പൊതു പ്രസംഗങ്ങൾ

Homilies for Feast Days

Divine Ministries

Messages from Pope Francis (Video Clips)

ഫ്രാൻസിസ് പാപ്പ: Malayalam Site of Pope Francis

Click here for more Links

Unitive Pluralism: An Answer to Religious Extremism

Unitive Pluralism: An Answer to Religious Extremism

Dr Vincent Kundukulam

Dr Vincent Kundukulam

Vincent Kundukulam

The greater danger in the religious world today is that the believers, in fear or pride, cling to their own religion and refuse to learn from the stranger. A world of strangers is a world of enemies. In a world of so many differing opinions some of the more unsecured take refuge in their own religions as the sole source of Truth and that leads them to hold extreme positions towards others. Religious extremism takes various shapes, mainly that of fundamentalism, fanaticism, and communalism, according to the different cultural political and economic contexts. This paper tries to analyse these phenomenon, to determine the role of religion in their formation, to expose anti-extremist potential inherent in religions, and to propose unitive pluralism as the efficient means to counter the religious extremisms.

1. Religious extremist ideologies

1.1 Religious fundamentalism

The origin of the term fundamentalism dates back to the last phase of the 19th century in USA. It was mainly a deliberate reaction to the liberal interpretation of the Bible made in with the new exegetical methods. The traditionalists perceived it as an attempt to water down the essentials of revelation. The term fundamentalist seems to have been used for the first time by Cutis Lee Laws, a Baptist from North America in the editorial of a New York weekly The Watchman Examiner (on 1st July 1920).  It designated those who were blindly attached to the great fundamentals of Christian faith and vehemently opposed to modern interpretations of the Bible[1]. It was characterized by the aggressive efforts to impose its creed upon the public and on denominational schools of the country. It insisted upon the obligatory prayer before classes, the reading of the Bible and divine service in colleges and universities. It removed from the churches and educational institutions those who did not share the conservative faith. It induced state legislatures to pass laws prohibiting the theory of evolution[2]

Fundamentalism has cut across Christian world and has become one of the most obvious characteristics of almost all the institutionalized religions of the world. The fundamentalists are always certain of what they say. Their value system is non-negotiable. To argue that there could be a plurality of ideas which could be equally valid is for them sacrilege. Another feature is the moral fervor with which they speak. They are convinced of having God’s authority to do what they will. They supply literalist interpretations of the Scriptures, which legitimate the exclusion of the other. They consider the progressive thinkers as creatures of devil and they don’t mind in using violence against them[3]

1.2 Religious fanaticism

Fanaticism is the anglicized form of a word, which in ancient times was used of priests supposed to be inspired by divinity. By the sixteenth century this original meaning expanded to include forms of noisy madness having no religious basis. In the seventeenth century immoderate adherents of the sects in England were called fanatics. Gradually this term denoted blind zeal in any cause whether religious social or political.

A thorough study of the various forms of fanaticism shows that it has three important components. The most obvious among them is extreme narrowness and rigidity of temper. It is impossible for the fanatics to learn anything that would dislodge their fixed idea. The end which they select as supreme and the path they follow to arrive at that end are never open to question. Another character of fanatics is their unyielding determination to make the fixed idea of triumph over others. They are men of fiction and fiery missionaries. A fanatic may intertwine himself with political parties and social forces in the destiny of the religious struggle. Another trait no less characteristic to fanaticism is callousness to pain. The fanatics become insensitive to human suffering to the point of cruelty. Its extreme narrowness of sin, inflexibility and brutal disregard of other values make fanaticism a deeply disruptive force in the society. Whether it arises out of religion, politics or class struggle, the fanatic regards himself as specially chosen for the purpose. According to analysts, neurological abnormality, unhappy environmental conditions and strong ambition contribute to the growth of fanatic culture in an individual[4].

1.3 Religious communalism

What is communalism? To commune means feel as one with somebody or some group. Communal in the positive sense is commitment for the well being of the community. It becomes communal in the negative sense when one discriminates others on account of immoderate attachment to one’s own community. As Rasheedhudin Khan has rightly observed, in India, religious communalism has taken the shape of narrow and blind devotion to one’s own religious community for acquiring political and economic benefits. In that sense communalism is opposed to secularism and nationalism.[5]

Though communalists play with religion, in fact, religion is not the fundamental cause of communal conflicts. As Louis Dumont remarks, religion becomes here a mere appearance. People are not really concerned about the substance of religion. Religious communalism is the affirmation of the religious community as a political group. What appears to be clash of religions is really clash of interests of a small group. It neither represents religion nor patriotism; it represents vested interests of the communal leaders.[6] There are various stages in the growth of religious communalism. First a feeling is promoted that the people of the same religion have not only common religious beliefs but also common economic political and cultural interests. In the second stage it emphasizes that the political, economic and social interests of one religious community are different from those of other religious communities. In the third stage people are made to believe that not only their differences are different but also antagonistic to those of other communities[7].

The above explanation shows that all forms of extremism contain some sort of exclusive attitude, which provokes violent attitude in the adepts towards their opponents. If for the fundamentalists the enemy is progressive thinkers of their own religion, believers of other religions are the targets of religious fanatics. The religious communalists are not, in fact, serious about the religion. Their interest is only economic and political. However, whatever be the form of religious extremism all of them manipulate directly or indirectly the sentiments of believers to achieve their vested interests. This leads us to ask a very prominent question regarding the nature of religion: is extremism innate to religion?

2. Are religions prone to extremist ideologies?

When we study the history of religions we come across several incidents where the religious leaders made pejorative remarks despising other religions as enemies. Crusades are best examples in the history of Christianity. When Islam conquered much of Christian territories and holy places in Europe, Popes instigated the Christians to fight against Muslims. Pope Urban II’s appeal for war is very famous: “I beseech and exhort you – and it is not I but God who beseeches and exhorts you as heralds of Christ – both poor and rich, to make haste to drive that vile breed from the regions inhabited by our brethren, and to bring timely aid to the worshippers of Christ. I speak to those here present, I will proclaim it to the absent, but it is Christ who commands …If those who go thither lose their lives on land or sea during the journey, or in battle against the pagans, their sins will at once be forgiven[8].”

The destruction of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya on 6th December 1992 brought into light the fanatic potential of the Hindutva forces in India. The worldwide dismay and outrange caused by Taliban’s edict of 26th February 2001 ordering the demolition of the Bamiyan Buddhas raised a host of questions of fanatic nature. The supreme Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar was quoted as saying: ‘I ask Afghans and the worlds Muslims to use their sound wisdom… Do you prefer to be a breaker of idols or a seller of idols? Is it appropriate to be influenced by the propaganda of the infidels?’[9]. September 11th attack on the World Trade Centre in 2001 reiterated the religious grounds of terrorism on universal level.

In the light of the above-mentioned inglorious stories allied to religions some opine that violence is native to religions. As evidence, they point out the martial metaphors in the Scriptures. The Hebrew Bible contains military exploits of great kings. The great epics Ramayana and the Mahabharata are tales of unending conflict and military intrigue. The ideas of Salvation Army in Christianity, Dal Khalsa in Sikhism, notion of Jihad in Islam, etc. denote images of warfare. According to them, religion is an order restoring institution and therefore it would allow struggle for the order to be restored.  Whenever the religious activists feel commissioned to protect the good from the satanic forces they may draw on violent means. In the Sri Lankan conflict the militant bhikkhus state that the people there live in dukkha, in an immoral world. The conflict is between dhamma and adhamma: order and disorder, religion and irreligion. That means, religions may give moral sanction to violence for the cause of bringing order in the world[10].

From childhood onwards we are taught that religions are effective instruments to establish peace and harmony among people. If this is true how can they employ violence even for a just cause? In this regard it is worth to mention the distinction made by the sociologists and anthropologists about religion. The social scientists make a difference between religion as faith and religion as an identity. Religion as faith has largely a spiritual function and religion as identity acquires political overtones[11]. As social institution religion is mot merely a set of revelations. It includes also dogmas and laws, which are the results of the interpretations made on the revealed texts in view of adapting them to the particular context of the believers. Consequently, due to the influence of believers having extremist tendencies, some scriptural interpretations may have extremist slant. In brief, religion as faith is not pro-violent whereas religion as identity, which includes the doctrines and the practices of the believers, is vulnerable to violence.

If religions, as social institutions, are exposed to the danger of extremism, building up a peaceful society will ever remain utopist unless creative measures are taken to curb the excessive interpretations of Scriptures. How to protect the revealed texts from disruptive interpretations? The best remedy is religions themselves. Religions as faith possess by nature anti-extremist elements. The inner dynamism of religions consists in generating universal and pluralistic values, which will create solidarity and equality in the society. This is possible because religions, by their origin, are liberative. All the major religions extol the value of self-sacrificing love, non-violence, solidarity of mankind, justice, reverence for life, truthfulness, etc. In order that religions become creative forces in building up the world their social engagements must be subdued to these ethical values. The social involvement of religions has to be modeled in accordance with the principle of unitive pluralism, the crux religions stands for.

To maintain religions as catalyst forces in nurturing diversity and justice in the human culture is not a over ambitious project because religions, as M. Juergensmeyer has rightly observed, provide images capable of conquering violence. In rituals, violence is symbolically transformed. Christ’s crucified image induces Christians to sabotage violence. In the Sikh tradition the two edged sword is an example of domestication of violence. Islamic mystics have come out to speak of the true jihad as the one to take place within each person[12]. The following reflections on unitive pluralism will show how extremism can be checked by the faith content in the religions.

3. Unitive Pluralism

Pluralism follows the logic that one is manifested in the many. The universe of meaning has no center. Truth is relative and mutable according to the different human experiences. Pluralism refers to a situation in which a variety of thought patterns, world-views or explanations of reality coexist with out any one of these having gained hegemony over others[13]. It invites us to believe that I do not exhaust the truth nor am I its center but only one of its poles. There are others. Reality is essentially pluriform. Without others we cannot exist and function in the world.

Religious pluralism is the view that different, or even contradictory, forms of religious beliefs and behavior could or even should co-exist[14]. Surprisingly we observe that our friends following a totally different path from our own, and sometimes apparently contradictory one, lead a happy and virtuous life. The fact of religious pluralism pushes us toward the profound insight that there is no one and only way to salvation. But does it mean that the diverse religions have to put off their specificities? Never. Religious pluralism is empowered with a potential for greater unity.

The world religions can move towards a more pervasive unity through better relationships with each other. They can become one precisely by remaining the many. This movement towards interconnectedness of religions is called unitive pluralism[15]. It does not aim at absolute or monistic oneness. It is not to be confused with the old rationalistic idea of “one world religion”. It is not also syncretism, which boils away all the historical differences; nor is it imperialism where one religion absorbs all others. Nor is it a lazy tolerance that let religions go in their own self-satisfied ways. Rather unitive pluralism is a unity in which each religion although loosing some of its individualism will intensify its personality. Each religion will retain its own distinctiveness but this will develop and take on new depths by relating to other religions in mutual dependence. To have a better grasp of unitive pluralism we will see its theoretical underpinnings, which are developed by Ernst Troeltsch (1865-1923), Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975), and Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961).

4. Pioneers of unitive pluralism[16]

4.1 Ernst Troeltsch, professor of philosophy and theology at the Universities of Bonn, Heidelberg and Berlin, was among the first to recognize the reality of religious and historical pluralism. Troeltsch was dissatisfied with the concept of revelation according to which God had been swooping down from heaven and intervening into history at particular spots. Such a vision gave God the image of a father who dispenses more parental love to some children than to others. In place of such an intervening God Troeltsch argued for metaphysics of immanent transcendence. God is coterminous with history. History is the march of God through the world.

The human spirit gives imposing testimony to the immanence of God within our very being. The religions of the world are the concrete manifestations of the universal revelation at work within all humankind. Although the Absolute is manifest in all of history, no historical manifestation of the Absolute can be absolute. That would contradict the nature of the Absolute and nature of the historical. That means all religions, as bearers of the divine are relative and limited. There can be no absolute religion. No religion can claim to be the full and final realization of the Divine.

4.2 Arnold Toynbee began his analysis of the nature of religion by urging a distinction between the essential counsels and nonessential propositions. From the study of seven major religions he evinced the following common characteristics. a) The universe is ultimately mysterious. b) The meaning of the universe is to be found in an Absolute Reality, which is not to be identified with it. c) Humanity seeks to experience and be in harmony with this truth. d) The way to live this harmony is to get rid of innate self-centeredness.

According to Toynbee, Since God wills to draw all people to salvation, naturally God has to realize this project according to the different contexts, time and cultures and this accounts for differences among religions. Since the same God of love is behind all religions, deep down they are same. Differences are accidental, cultural and time-conditioned. They are different paths leading to the same goal. Behind these accidentals there is common essence. A religion has constantly to be on guard against identifying the nonessentials with the essentials. He compares it with peeling an onion. You might go on peeling an onion till you find that you had peeled away the heart as well as the skin. If however because of this risk you refrain from trying to peel your onion you will never have an onion to eat.

4.3 Carl Gustav Jung came to see the image of God as an ingredient necessary for psychological health. According to Jung we humans are animated by something more than what we are expressly aware of. Below and in vital connection with our consciousness there is what has come to be called the unconscious and subconscious. This unknown part contains our true selves. According to Jung the reality of the unconscious represents the mysterious, the supernatural element in us. One of the most reliable pathways into the supra-rational darkness of the unconscious is the archetype. The archetypes could be decoded by symbols and myths. The archetypes are common to all religions but symbols and myths will be different, dependent on the varying cultural historical contexts.

From the discoveries of the unconscious and the presence of God within it Jung drew conclusions concerning the nature of the established religions, their differences and similarities. For Jung revelation is an unveiling of the depths of the individual and collective unconscious. It is the experience of God speaking from within, essentially the same within for all human beings. The differing dogmas and doctrines are attempts to give symbolic expression to this essentially ineffable experience. For him it is altogether inconceivable that there could be any definite figure capable of expressing archetypal indefiniteness.

The above discussion on pluralism from historical, phenomenological and psychological angles leads us to the following conclusions: a) in all religions there is an experience of a reality that transcends human conception b) that reality is conceived in a plurality of ways both within and outside the religion c) due to our limitations and our need to commit ourselves to a particular experience of transcendence, our concrete experience will function as in an absolute way d) unless we penetrate ever further into our own particular experience of transcendence through self-critical dialogue we may fall into the danger of extremism.

5. Scriptural basis for the unitive pluralism

A careful analysis of the scriptures from the perspective of pluralism and universalism reveal to us the interconnectedness of religions, the thrust for unitive pluralism.

5.1 Hinduism: Hinduism, as understood through Brahmanic tradition and Upanishads, focuses on knowledge of the inner spirit and its realization. This inward search has brought Hindus to the belief that there is one divine reality and that it can manifest in different forms. In the Rig Veda there is evidence of conflict between many groups – Aryan, Dravidian and Aboriginal – but there is also a resolution that absorbs the good aspects of each. This resolution is “ekam Sat vipra bhahudha vadanti : The real is one, the learned call it by various names, Agni, Yama, Matarisvan. (Rig Veda 1, 164, 46) The Upanishads gave further development to the same view stating that Brahman is one and that the different deities are His manifestations. Consequently the Hindu sees the different sects within and outside Hinduism as manifestations of the same divine reality. Denominations like Vaishnavism and Saivism, and various darsanas including conceptions from atheistic to pantheistic, to deistic, to monistic, and to mystical are incorporated in it.

Hindu concept of God is like looking at a piece of sculpture from different angles. The whole form can be grasped only when the sculpture has been looked at from different perspectives: front, the back, and the sides. Although each of these views is different from the others and although some aspects of what is seen and described from different angles may seem incompatible, these reports can together give us a reliable overall view of the sculpture. More aspects of the divine we can perceive the more complete our understanding of God will be[17]. The expressions in Hindu prayers and hymns like Vasudaiva kudumbakam, Atmavat Sarva Bhoodhani, Sarve Bhavandu Sukina, Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavandhu, also point to the spirit of universalism inherent in Hindu religion.

5. 2 Islam: The Muslim attitude towards other religions is derived from Muhammad’s teachings, from the Quran, and from its approved commentaries. Though the Quran is the complete and full revelation of the one divine Book for Muslims, they recognize a foundational unity underlying all religions. The earlier part of Quran mentions different prophets speaking to different people. “Say: We believe in God and that which is revealed to us; in what was revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the tribes; to Moses and Jesus and the other prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction among any of them, and to God we have surrendered ourselves” (2, 136). The messages spoken to them come from a single source called as the “Mother of the Book” (43, 4; 13, 39) and the “Hidden Book” (56, 78). There is no nation wherein a messenger has not come (35, 24). Therefore a Muslim has to respect the sacred works of all religions.

The inclusive Islamic attitude towards others is seen in their concept of creation too. According to Koran all are God’s creatures and all are children of the same parents: “Men, We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you might get to know one another. The noblest of you in God’s sight is he who is most righteous” (49,13). Islam is often criticized of making conversions by force. But the Koran teachings are against compelling people to embrace the faith. “Say: This is the truth from your Lord. Let him who will, believe in it, and him who will, deny it (18, 29). “Your duty is only to give warning: you are not their keeper” (88, 21-22). The Muhammad’s concept of Jihad has often been misunderstood. The primary definition of Jihad is struggling or striving. Islamic scholars identify four kinds of jihad a) jihad of heart: spiritual striving b) jihad of the hand: work c) jihad of the tongue: preaching d) jihad of the sword. The recourse to holy war developed as a response to idolatry[18].

It seems that Muhammad advocated the love of other religions not only in words but also in deeds. Once, a few Christians from Najran came to meet him in Medina. During the conversation there arrived the time for Christians to recite prayers. Then prophet arranged the space for the Christians to pray in the same mosque. The respect for other religions is also seen in the counsel of Babar to Humayun: ‘India is a land of different religions. You must be grateful for that. If Allah gives you power you should not show any favoritism. Don’t kill the cows, which may hurt the feelings of the Hindus. Don’t destroy the temples and places of worship’[19]

5. 3 Christianity: The Jewish self-consciousness of being the chosen people of God (Deut 7, 6) and Jesus’ statements about his relationship to God (Jn 17, 22) certainly seem to have influenced Christians to assert a unique status for the Christianity.  But the Bible contains elements that encourage an open attitude towards the other religions. The book of Genesis tells that God created man in His own image and likeness (Gen 1, 26-27). According to this vision, not only Jews Christians and Muslims but also the whole humanity possess God’s image. Whoever lives according to the voice of his conscience is doing the will of the Creator.

Jesus turned against the exclusive attitudes of Jews. He transgressed the purity laws with quite astonishing freedom. He broke the Sabbath (Mk 2, 23-28) touched lepers (Mk 1, 41) and dined with religious outcasts (Mk 2, 15-17). He said that nothing outside a man could defile him but the things, which come out of men, are what defile him (Mk 7, 15). Jesus not only fought against the exclusivism in Jewish religion but also he inculcated inclusive outlook among his disciples.  He invited men to love God by loving neighbors and even the enemies (Lk 6, 35-36). His experience of God as Abbha allowed him to see all human beings as brothers and sisters. Thus Jesus gave us common platform of love where all religions can meet and work together for the growth of God’s reign in this world.

Jesus expressed his openness towards other religions by respecting believers of other religions. Seeing the faith of the Roman centurion Jesus said: “Truly I tell you, in no one in Israel have I found such faith. I tell you, many will come from east and west and will eat with Abraham and Isaac Jacob in the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 8, 10-11). Jesus praised the Canaanite woman’s faith (Mt 15, 28) and projected a Samaritan as model to practice the love of neighbor (Lk 10, 25-37). He did not hesitate to drink water from the Samarian woman, which was forbidden at that time (Jn 4, 7). He encouraged an exorcist who casts out demons in his name even though he did not join his company (Mk 9, 38-40). He said that all those who help the needy would be saved at the final day without enquiring into their religious affiliations (Mt, 25, 31-46)[20]

Our search into the pluralistic trends in great religious traditions has exposed the ant-extremist potential in religions. Now in the next and the concluding part of this paper we will propose certain measures to counteract the immoderate radicalism and to strengthen the culture of pluralism and unity among the believers.

6. Some concrete steps to strengthen the unitive pluralism

Learn about the noble values of all religions: Ignorance about other religions is a great hurdle in the path of communal harmony. The UNESCO Constitution begins by saying. “As wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that defense for peace must be constructed.” If this remains true the culture of unity and diversity must be instilled in the people educating in them the noble values of all religions. Monolithic religious education becomes a divisive factor in the already divided world. We have to pursue a methodology of education, which helps the people so to understand their own religious traditions as to affirm and celebrate the significance of other religions. Religions, in and through all their academic and cultural institutions, can cultivate human and religious values in the minds of pupils. Initiation to inter-religious prayer gatherings and readings from different Scriptures is to be multiplied all over the country.

Promotion of Inter-religious fellowships: Some movements in India have taken up inter-religious friendship as their special task. The Dharma Bharati National Institute, began on 16th July 1993 at Indore, is such a NGO. The goal of Dharma Bharati is to educate the youth in values of love, fraternity, justice, peace, sharing, tolerance and respect against the ethnic quarrels and communal tensions. For the personal transformation of the individuals are given the five paths. a) Say a prayer a day for peace according to one’s own religious tradition b) Skip a meal a week to express solidarity with the hungry and contribute the savings to the needy c) Do a good deed a day without any selfish motive to develop loving concern for the nation d) Honour parents, teachers and all human beings 5) Respect earth and save its resources[21]. Collaborating with such organizations the believers could be trained to work at the grass-root level for the cause of unitive pluralism.

Readiness to relativize the possessed truth: Every religion has something unique to contribute for the welfare of the world. But at the same time we must accept with all humility that each religion has only a limited and partial understanding of the Truth. Those who believe that their religion possesses the full truth are like the blinds that went to see an elephant. Hereby we do not question the specificity of any religion. We simply acknowledge the historical contingence of revealed truths. Hence no religion can make exclusive claim over the grace of God. All are like beggars standing with their begging bowls in front of God.

Avoid the false universalism: The efforts to strengthen unitive pluralism run the risk of a false universalism, which would obliterate the identities of different faiths. Any contact begins in the appreciation of difference. Ignoring differences invariably leads to the domination of the weak by the stronger. It is not leveling out of differences that we will achieve the new wholeness. We need an existential encounter among different traditions and the mutual transformation that occurs as a result. Pluralistic spirituality presupposes the attitude of letting the opposites co-exist. Thus the particular experience of truth may be enlarged and deepened so as to open new experiences of religious truth. Therefore let us not keep silence over the disjunctions, disunities, distances and dissonances that pervade human society at the religio-socio-economic-political levels in the name of interfaith bonhomie.

Virtue of interdependence: The virtues of interdependence transcend the barrier of caste, creed, race, colour, language and nationality. It can be built up through mutual trust. An atmosphere of understanding one another, not in religious or caste terms but as human beings with same needs, aspirations and obligations is to be created. Ways of worship and objects of worship may be differed, style of life may be varied, language may be different, but these are only the outward manifestations, which need not erode the basic trust in one another as human beings. Peace which is result of trust among the people can prosper only when social interdependence becomes a way of life of the people.[22]

Counter-cultural and political formation: Compared to the activities of communal forces, the resistance put up by the religions is very less now. Today the religious and cultural leaders don’t come forward exposing the failure of police and the bureaucracy during communal violence. Using art forms – painting, music, street plays – have been a method successfully experimented in this sphere.  The cultural forums at the village levers can employ these methods to disaffiliate society from the logic of communalism. The counter cultural formation has to be done also through mass media. Disseminating teachings, stories, legends and myths from different religious traditions would instill in the people universal love and respect for the other. Mere cultural response will not be sufficient if not followed up with more substantive moves on the political front to check the wave of communalism.  Solution would be an extensive campaign sponsored by all those sections of civil society, who believe in non-communal politics.

Conclusion

Mankind is today in the midst of one of the greatest cries in history. Despite the fact that the great scientific inventions liberated us from servitude to nature, we seem to suffer from a type of religious neurosis. We need a moral and spiritual therapy, which would heal the human mind.

From the genes of our animal ancestors, we humans have inherited aggression toward outsiders and loyalties toward our own kin. This was essential for the survival and development of the most viable genotypes. Today however as biological evolution has given rise to cultural evolution and as cultural evolution has advanced from kinship to interdependence of nations, the conditions for survival have changed. Now cultures and nations will survive not by aggression and dominance but by cooperation. Therefore if we wish to survive as a human species on this planet the best way is to understand ourselves first as world citizens and then only in terms of our religious, ethnic and linguistic identities. Humanity desperately requires that the world religions work to realize this objective[23].

The best medicine that the religions can apply in this situation is to develop a spirituality of religions that are cured of provincialism and advocating values of unitive pluralism. The religious leaders must turn their energies to fashioning new ways of understanding their own religions. There should be cultural forums in every village to isolate those who mix religion with political and economic interests. Common defense of human rights, joint endeavors for development, sharing of spiritual exercises, etc., will increase mutual confidence and cooperation among the followers of various religions.

Let us conclude recalling a small anecdote. Once a group of pilgrims went to ascend the mountain. They could not see its summit because they were making their way up through clouds, but after a long time they climbed to heights above the clouds and stood on the upper reaches of their mountain under a clear sky. Then they could see to their surprise that there were other mountains and that there were pilgrims on them concealed beneath the clouds. Then the pilgrims tried to communicate saying halloo! halloo!


[1] P. Lathuiliere, Le fondamentalisme catholique, Cerf, Paris, 1995, pp. 15-19.

[2] H.R. Niebuhr, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, vol. 6, p. 526.

[3] GPD, Economic Political Weekly, September 29, 2001, p. 3668.

[4] M. C. Otto, Fanaticism, Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 90-91.

[5] R. Khan, South Asian Portents, India Nation-State and Communalism, G. S. Balla (ed.), 1989, pp. 40-42.

[6] L. Dumont, Nationalism and Communalism, Contribution to Indian Sociology, VII, 1964, pp. 45-47.

[7] B. Chandra, Communalism in Modern India, New Delhi, Vani Educational Books, 1984, pp. 1-4.

[8] P. Regine, The Crusades, London, 1962, pp. 23-24.

[9] R. Hensman, Economic and Political Weekly, June 9 2001, p. 2031.

[10] M. Juergensmeyer, Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, Delhi, 1993, pp. 157-164.

[11] A. A. Engineer, Economic and Political Weekly, October 20, 2001.

[12] M. Juergensmeyer, Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, p. 159.

[13] H. W. Pluralism, Theological Dictionary of Fundamental Theology, Latourelle R and Fisichella R., New York: Cross Roads, 1994, p. 783.

[14] K. Koyama, A Theological Reflection on Religious Pluralism, The Ecumenical Review 51, 1999, p. 165.

[15] P. F. Knitter, No Other Name? New York: Orbis Books, 1995, p. 9.

[16]  P. F. Knitter, No Other Name?,  pp. 23-26; 37-40; 55-61.

[17] H. Coward, Pluralism: Challenge to World Religions, New York, Orbis Books, pp. 64-65.

[18] H. Coward, Pluralism: Challenge to World Religions, p. 46.

[19] T. V. Muhammadali, Bahumatha Sauhredam Islamil, Matyhavum Chintayum, vol. 82, no. 2, 2002, pp. 41-43.

[20] Soares-Prabhu, Biblical Themes for a Contextual Theology Today, pp. 178-179.

[21] V. Alengaden (ed.), Education for the Third Millennium, 2000, pp. 210-213.

[22] S. K. Parmar, Inter-religious Co-operation for Peace and Value Education: Response to Consumerism and Communalism, Peace and Values Education, K. P. Joseph [ed.], 30-33.

[23] P. Gyger, The religions and the birth of a new humanity, Pluralism and the Religions, J. D’Arcy May (ed.), Cassell, 1988, pp. 90- 93.

Notes

[1] P. Lathuiliere, Le fondamentalisme catholique, Cerf, Paris, 1995, pp. 15-19.

[2] H.R. Niebuhr, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, vol. 6, p. 526.

[3] GPD, Economic Political Weekly, September 29, 2001, p. 3668.

[4] M. C. Otto, Fanaticism, Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 90-91.

[5] R. Khan, South Asian Portents, India Nation-State and Communalism, G. S. Balla (ed.), 1989, pp. 40-42.

[6] L. Dumont, Nationalism and Communalism, Contribution to Indian Sociology, VII, 1964, pp. 45-47.

[7] B. Chandra, Communalism in Modern India, New Delhi, Vani Educational Books, 1984, pp. 1-4.

[8] P. Regine, The Crusades, London, 1962, pp. 23-24.

[9] R. Hensman, Economic and Political Weekly, June 9 2001, p. 2031.

[10] M. Juergensmeyer, Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, Delhi, 1993, pp. 157-164.

[11] A. A. Engineer, Economic and Political Weekly, October 20, 2001.

[12] M. Juergensmeyer, Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, p. 159.

[13] H. W. Pluralism, Theological Dictionary of Fundamental Theology, Latourelle R and Fisichella R., New York: Cross Roads, 1994, p. 783.

[14] K. Koyama, A Theological Reflection on Religious Pluralism, The Ecumenical Review 51, 1999, p. 165.

[15] P. F. Knitter, No Other Name? New York: Orbis Books, 1995, p. 9.

[16]  P. F. Knitter, No Other Name?,  pp. 23-26; 37-40; 55-61.

[17] H. Coward, Pluralism: Challenge to World Religions, New York, Orbis Books, pp. 64-65.

[18] H. Coward, Pluralism: Challenge to World Religions, p. 46.

[19] T. V. Muhammadali, Bahumatha Sauhredam Islamil, Matyhavum Chintayum, vol. 82, no. 2, 2002, pp. 41-43.

[20] Soares-Prabhu, Biblical Themes for a Contextual Theology Today, pp. 178-179.

[21] V. Alengaden (ed.), Education for the Third Millennium, 2000, pp. 210-213.

[22] S. K. Parmar, Inter-religious Co-operation for Peace and Value Education: Response to Consumerism and Communalism, Peace and Values Education, K. P. Joseph [ed.], 30-33.

[23] P. Gyger, The religions and the birth of a new humanity, Pluralism and the Religions, J. D’Arcy May (ed.), Cassell, 1988, pp. 90- 93.