Benefits of ALOE VERA

Benefits of ALOE VERA

Everybody knows ALOE VERA is great for cuts and sunburns, even bug bites. It’s been called the “First Aidplant. Aloe vera‘s soothing gel inside the thick, succulent leaves is an incredible natural skin care “product.” But what about the rest of the body: are there benefits for your insides too? Actually there are some very powerful benefits from the aloe vera plant. No one plant offers all the health benefits of the aloe vera plant.

• Aloe vera is an antioxidant and cancer fighter, especially colon cancer

• Reduces and stops inflammation, both internally and externally

• Oxygenates blood and energizes cells, hydrates skin and repairs skin tissue

• Aloe vera heals internal digestive problems such as irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, acid reflux – cleanses the intestinal tract

• Reduces risk factor for strokes and heart attacks by making “sticky” blood “unsticky,” and boosts the oxidation of your blood, plus circulation

• Alkalizes the body, helping to balance overly acidic dietary habits

• Boosts cardiovascular performance and physical endurance

• Stabilizes blood pressure and reduces triglycerides

The Harvesting Process

When ready to harvest the gel from an aloe leaf, choose an outer leaf that is healthy and grows toward the bottom of the plant. To remove the leaf, cut it at an angle close to the plant’s base. Plants that are too immature to harvest will not have leaves growing close to the ground.

Once you cut the leaf from the plant, place it upright in a container in a slightly tilted position. Let the leaf stay in that position for approximately 10 to 12 minutes, allowing the sap to drain from the leaf.

Place the aloe leaf on a flat surface such as a cutting board. Carefully cut off the tip of the leaf and the pointed rough edges on both sides using a very sharp knife. Make certain to cut both sides of the leaf all the way from top to bottom.

Separate the front and back of the leaf by slicing it lengthwise from the inside.

Scoop out both the slimy mucilage gel and the clear inner gel which appears more as a solid gel. For most leaves, a spoon works for scooping out the gel. If the leaf is very large, a butter knife may work best. When removing the gel, it is important to press down lightly but firmly, being careful not to remove any remaining sap.

Storing the Aloe Vera Gel

Store the aloe gel in the refrigerator in a plastic container that is safe for food storage or a glass container. The best container choice is a dark green or brown glass jar, which helps to keep out light. Many people add a drop of vitamin E and a small amount of citric acid powder to prevent discoloration and make the aloe vera gel last longer. In place of citric acid powder, simply crush a vitamin C tablet into powder or use a drop of grapefruit seed extract.

Malala Yusafsai’s Chronicle on BBC – Malayalam Translation

താലിബാന്‍ മതഭീകരരുടെ വെടിയേറ്റ് ആശുപത്രിയില്‍ മരണത്തോട് മല്ലിടുന്ന മലാല യൂസഫ്സായ് എന്ന പാകിസ്ഥാനി ഏഴാം ക്ലാസ് വിദ്യാര്‍ഥിനി BBCയില്‍ എഴുതിയ ലേഖനത്തിന്‍റെ മലയാള പരിഭാഷ.

A seventh grade schoolgirl, Malala Yusafsai from Swat chronicles how the Taliban education ban has affected her and her classmates. The diary first appeared on BBC. Malayalam Translation of her article.

പാകിസ്ഥാനിലെ വടക്കുപടിഞ്ഞാറന്‍ പ്രശ്നബാധിതപ്രദേശമായ സ്വാത് ജില്ലയിലെ മുഴുവന്‍ സ്കൂളുകളും അടച്ചുപൂട്ടാന്‍ സ്ത്രീ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം നിരോധിച്ചു കൊണ്ടുള്ള നിയമത്തിന്‍റെ പേരില്‍ താലിബാന്‍ ഉത്തരവിട്ടു. കര്‍ക്കശമായി ”ശരി അത്ത്” (Sharia law) നിയമം അടിച്ചേല്‍പ്പിക്കണം എന്നാവശ്യപ്പെടുന്ന തീവ്രവാദികള്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞ വര്‍ഷം നൂറ്റിയമ്പതോളം സ്കൂളുകള്‍ തകര്‍ത്തു. തിങ്കളാഴ്ച്ചത്തെ വാര്‍ത്തയനുസരിച്ച്, വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം സംരക്ഷിക്കും എന്ന് സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ പ്രതിജ്ഞ എടുത്ത ശേഷവും 5 സ്കൂളുകള്‍ കൂടി ബോംബ്‌ സ്ഫോടനത്തില്‍ തകര്‍ക്കപ്പെട്ടു. സ്ത്രീ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ നിരോധനം എങ്ങനെയാണ് തന്നെയും തന്‍റെ സഹപാഠികളെയും ബാധിച്ചതെന്ന് സ്വാത് ജില്ലയില്‍ നിന്നുള്ള ഈ ഏഴാം ക്ലാസ് വിദ്യാര്‍ഥിനി എഴുതുന്നു —
ജനുവരി 3 ശനി: ഞാന്‍ ഭയപ്പെടുന്നു

സൈനിക ഹെലികോപ്ടറും താലിബാനുമുള്ള ഒരു ദുസ്വപ്നം ഞാന്‍ കഴിഞ്ഞ രാത്രി കണ്ടു. സ്വാത്തില്‍ സൈനിക നടപടി തുടങ്ങിയപ്പോള്‍ മുതല്‍ ഇത്തരം ഭീകര സ്വപ്‌നങ്ങള്‍ ഞാന്‍ കാണാറുണ്ട്. രാവിലെ ഉമ്മ തന്ന ഭക്ഷണവും കഴിച്ചു ഞാന്‍ സ്കൂളിലേക്ക് പോയി. പെണ്‍കുട്ടികള്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ പോകരുത് എന്ന് താലിബാന്‍ വിലക്കിയതിനാല്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ പോകാന്‍ എനിക്ക് ഭയമായിരുന്നു. 27 കുട്ടികള്‍ ഉള്ള ക്ലാസില്‍ 11 പേര് മാത്രമേ ഹാജര്‍ ഉള്ള്ളൂ. താലിബാന്റെ വിലക്കാന് കുട്ടികള്‍ വരാത്തതിനു കാരണം. താലിബാന്റെ ഉത്തരവ് വന്ന ശേഷം എന്റെ മൂന്ന് കൂട്ടുകാരും കുടുംബവും ലാഹോരിലെക്കും പെഷ്വാരിലേക്കും റാവല്‍പിണ്ടിയിലെക്കും സ്ഥലം മാറി.

ഞാന്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ നിന്ന് വീട്ടിലേക്കു പോകുമ്പോ “ഞാന്‍ നിന്നെ കൊല്ലും” എന്നൊരാള്‍ പറയുന്നത് കേട്ടു . ഞാന്‍ നടത്തത്തിനു വേഗം കൂട്ടി. കുറച്ചു കഴിഞ്ഞു അയാള്‍ പുറകില്‍ ഉണ്ടോ എന്ന് തിരിഞ്ഞു നോക്കി. എന്റെ ഭാഗ്യത്തിന് അയാള്‍ മറ്റാരെയോ മൊബൈലില്‍ ഭീഷണിപെടുത്തുക ആയിരുന്നു. ഞാന്‍ നെടുവീര്‍പ്പിട്ടു….!!
ജനുവരി 4 ഞായര്‍ : എനിക്ക് സ്കൂളില്‍ പോയേ തീരൂ

അവധിദിവസം ആയതിനാല്‍ ഞാന്‍ ഇന്ന് പത്തു മണിക്കാണ് ഉണര്‍ന്നത്. ഗ്രീന്‍ ചൌക്കില്‍ മൂന്ന് ശവങ്ങള്‍ കിടക്കുന്നു എന്ന് ബാപ്പ പറയുന്നത് കേട്ടു. എനിക്ക് വിഷമം തോന്നി. സൈനിക നടപടി തുടങ്ങുന്നതിനു മുന്‍പ് മാര്‍ഗസാര്‍, ഫിസാഘട്ട്,കഞ്ചു എന്നീ സ്ഥലങ്ങളിലേക്ക് ഞങ്ങള്‍ ഞായറാഴ്ച്ചകളില്‍ പിക്നിക്‌ പോകാറുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. ഇപ്പൊ ഒന്നൊര വര്‍ഷത്തിലധികമായി ഞങ്ങള്‍ പിക്നിക്‌ പോയിട്ട്. മുമ്പൊക്കെ അത്താഴം കഴിഞ്ഞു ഞങ്ങള്‍ നടക്കാന്‍ പോകുമായിരുന്നു. ഇപ്പൊ സന്ധ്യക്ക് മുമ്പേ വീട്ടിലെത്തും എത്തും.
ഇന്ന് ഞാന്‍ കുറച്ചു വീട്ടു പണികള്‍ ചെയ്തു. ഹോം വര്‍ക്ക് കഴിഞ്ഞു അനുജനോടൊപ്പം കുറച്ചുനേരം കളിച്ചു. നാളെ സ്കൂളില്‍ പോകണമല്ലോ എന്നോര്‍ത്തപ്പോ. എന്‍റെ ഹൃദയം വേഗത്തില്‍ തുടിച്ചു.
ജനുവരി 5 തിങ്കള്‍ : വര്‍ണ്ണ വസ്ത്രങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് നിരോധനം

ഞാന്‍ സ്കൂളിലേക്ക് പോകാന്‍ ഒരുങ്ങുകയായിരുന്നു. യൂണിഫോം ധരിക്കാന്‍ തുടങ്ങിയപ്പോഴാണ് യൂണിഫോം ധരിക്കരുത് സാധാരണ വസ്ത്രം ധരിച്ചു വേണം സ്കൂളില്‍ വരാന്‍ എന്ന് പ്രിസിപ്പല്‍ പറഞ്ഞത് ഓര്‍ത്തത്‌. അതുകൊണ്ട് എനിക്ക് ഏറ്റവും ഇഷ്ടപ്പെട്ട പിങ്ക് വസ്ത്രം ഞാന്‍ ധരിച്ചു. സ്കൂളിലെ മറ്റു കുട്ടികളും നിറമുള്ള വസ്ത്രങ്ങള്‍ ധരിച്ചു വന്നപ്പോള്‍ സ്കൂളിനു ഒരു ഗൃഹാന്തരീക്ഷം കൈവന്നു. എന്‍റെ ഒരു കൂട്ടുകാരി വന്നു ചോദിക്കുവാ ”ദൈവത്തെ ഓര്‍ത്തു പറ നമ്മുടെ സ്കൂള്‍ താലിബാന്‍ ആക്രമിക്കാന്‍ പോവുകയാണോ?” എന്ന്. രാവിലത്തെ അസ്സംബ്ലിയില്‍ താലിബാന്‍ എതിര്തതിനാല്‍ ഇനി നിറമുള്ള വസ്ത്രങ്ങള്‍ ധരിക്കരുത് എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞിരുന്നു.
ഞാന്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ നിന്ന് വന്നതിനു ശേഷം ടൂഷന് പോയി. ഷക്കാര്‍ദ്രയിലെ കര്‍ഫ്യു 15ദിവസത്തിനുശേഷം പിന്‍വലിച്ചു എന്ന് വൈകിട്ട് ടി വി വെച്ചപ്പോഴാണ് അറിയുന്നത്. അവിടെ താമസിക്കുന്ന എന്റെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് ടീച്ചര്‍ക്ക് ഇനിമുതല്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ വരാന്‍ കഴിയിമല്ലോ എന്നോര്‍ത്തപ്പോള്‍ എനിക്ക് സന്തോഷമായി.
ജനുവരി 7 ബുധന്‍ : വെടിവെപ്പില്ല ഭയവുമില്ല

അവധി കാലത്ത് മുഹറം ആഘോഷിക്കാന്‍ ഞാന്‍ ബുനൈരില്‍ എത്തിയിരിക്കുകയാണ്. ഹരിതാഭയാര്‍ന്ന കൃഷിയിടങ്ങള്‍. സുന്ദരമായ മല നിരകള്‍. ബുനൈരിനെ ഞാന്‍ സ്നേഹിക്കുന്നു. എന്‍റെ സ്വാത്തും വളരെ സുന്ദരം തന്നെ, പക്ഷെ അവിടെ സമാധാനമില്ല. ബുനൈരില്‍ സമാധാനവും പ്രശാന്തിയിമുണ്ട്. ഇവിടെ വെടിയൊച്ച ഇല്ല ഭയവുമില്ല. ഞങ്ങള്‍ എല്ലാവരും സന്തുഷ്ടരാണ്.

ഇന്ന് ഞങ്ങള്‍ പീര്‍ ബാബയുടെ ശവകുടീരത്തില്‍ പോയിരുന്നു. നല്ല തിരക്കുണ്ടായിരുന്നു. പ്രാര്‍ഥിക്കാന്‍ ആണ് സാധാരണ ആളുകള്‍ അവിടെ വരുന്നത്. ഞങ്ങള്‍ വിനോദയാത്രക്കാണ്‌ അവിടെ വന്നത്. വളയും കമ്മലും മാലയും ലോക്കറ്റും വില്‍ക്കുന്ന ഒരുപാട് കടകള്‍ ഉണ്ടിവിടെ. എന്തെങ്കിലും വാങ്ങിയാലോ എന്നാലോചിച്ചു. ഒന്നും പക്ഷെ ഇഷ്ടായില്ല .ഉമ്മ വളകളും കമ്മലും വാങ്ങി.

ജനുവരി 9 വെള്ളി: മൌലാന അവധിക്കു പോയതാണോ?

കൂട്ടുകാരികളോട് ഞാന്‍ ഇന്നെന്‍റെ ബുനൈര്‍ യാത്രയെക്കുറിച്ച് പറഞ്ഞു. ബുനൈര്‍ കഥകള്‍ കേട്ടു അവര്‍ക്ക് മടുത്തുപോയി. ഞങ്ങള്‍ മൌലാന ഷാ ദൌരന്റെ മരണത്തെ പറ്റി പ്രചരിക്കുന്ന അഭ്യുഹങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ച് സംസാരിച്ചു. അദ്ദേഹം എഫ് എം റേഡിയോയില്‍ പ്രഭാഷങ്ങള്‍ നടത്താറുണ്ട്‌. സ്ത്രീ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം നിരോധിച്ചുകൊണ്ടുള്ള വാര്‍ത്ത അറിയിച്ചത് അദ്ദേഹമാണ്. അദ്ദേഹം മരിച്ചുവെന്ന് ചില കുട്ടികള്‍ പറയുന്നു. അദ്ദേഹം അവധിയില്‍ പ്രവേശിച്ചു എന്ന് മറ്റു ചിലര്‍. പതിവുള്ള അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്‍റെ പ്രഭാഷണം പക്ഷെ കഴിഞ്ഞ രാത്രിയില്‍ ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നില്ല. ഒരു പക്ഷെ അതായിരിക്കും ഈ അഭ്യുഹങ്ങള്‍ പ്രചരിക്കാന്‍ കാരണം.
വെള്ളിയാഴ്ച ടൂഷന്‍ ഇല്ലാത്ത ദിവസം ആയതിനാല്‍ വൈകുന്നേരം മുഴുവന്‍ ഞാന്‍ കളിച്ചു. വൈകിട്ട് ടി വി ഓണ്‍ ചെയ്തപ്പോള്‍ ലാഹോറിലെ സ്ഫോടനങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ച് കേട്ടു. എന്തേ പാക്കിസ്ഥാനില്‍ തുടര്‍ച്ചയായി ഈ സ്ഫോടനങ്ങള്‍ എന്നു ഞാന്‍ എന്നോട് തന്നെ ചോദിച്ചു.
ജനുവരി 14 ബുധന്‍ : ഇനിയെനിക്ക് ഒരിക്കല്‍ കൂടി സ്കൂളില്‍ പോകാന്‍ കഴിയില്ലായിരിക്കാം

നാളെ മുതല്‍ ശൈത്യകാല അവധി തുടങ്ങുന്നതിനാല്‍ സ്കൂളില്‍ പോകാന്‍ എനിക്കൊരു ഉഷാറും തോന്നിയില്ല. ഇനിയെന്ന് സ്കൂള്‍ തുറക്കുമെന്ന് മാത്രം പറയാതെ പ്രിന്‍സിപ്പല്‍ അവധി പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ചു. ഇങ്ങനെയൊരു സംഭവം ആദ്യമാണ്. സ്കൂള്‍ തുറക്കുന്ന ദിവസം മുന്‍കൂട്ടി വ്യക്തമായി അറിയിക്കുന്നതാണ്. സ്കൂള്‍ തുറക്കുന്ന ദിവസം അനൌണ്സ് ചെയ്യാത്തതിന് പ്രിന്‍സിപ്പല്‍ ഒരു കാരണവും അറിയിച്ചില്ല. ജനുവരി പതിനഞ്ചു മുതല്‍ പെണ്‍കുട്ടികളുടെ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം നിരോധിച്ചതാവാം കാരണം എന്ന് ഞാനൂഹിച്ചു. ഇത്തവണ അവധിക്കാലം തുടങ്ങാന്‍ പോവുന്നതിന്‍റെ യാതൊരു സന്തോഷവും പെണ്‍കുട്ടികളില്‍ ഉണ്ടായിരുന്നില്ല. താലിബാന്‍ നിയമം കാരണം അവര്‍ക്കിനിയോരിക്കലും സ്കൂളില്‍ വരാന്‍ കഴിയില്ലെന്ന് അവര്‍ക്കറിയാമായിരുന്നു. ചില കുട്ടികള്‍ ഫെബ്രുവരിയില്‍ സ്കൂള്‍ തുറക്കും എന്ന ശുഭാപ്തി വിശ്വാസം പ്രകടിപ്പിച്ചു. മറ്റു ചില കുട്ടികളുടെ രക്ഷിതാക്കള്‍ മക്കളുടെ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസത്തിനു വേണ്ടി സ്വാത് വിട്ടു മറ്റു നഗരങ്ങളിലേക്ക് പോവാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ചതായി പറഞ്ഞു.
ഇന്ന് സ്കൂളിലെ അവസാനദിനം ആയതിനാല്‍ കൂടുതല്‍ നേരം ഞങ്ങള്‍ മൈതാനത്ത് കളിക്കാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ചിരുന്നു. സ്കൂള്‍ വീണ്ടും തുറക്കുമെന്ന പ്രതീക്ഷയിലാണെങ്കിലും ഇനിയൊരിക്കലും ഈ മുറ്റത്ത്‌ വരാന്‍ കഴിയില്ലെന്ന പോലെ ആ പടിയിറങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ എന്‍റെ പ്രിയ വിദ്യാലയത്തെ ഞാന്‍ തിരിഞ്ഞു നോക്കി..
ജനുവരി 15 വ്യാഴം : ആയുധങ്ങള്‍ അഗ്നി നിറച്ച രാത്രി

ആയുധങ്ങളുടെ വെടിയൊച്ചകളാല്‍ മുഖരിതമായ ആ രാത്രിയില്‍ ഞാന്‍ മൂന്നു തവണ ഞെട്ടിയുണര്‍ന്നു. സ്കൂള്‍ ഇല്ലാത്തത് കൊണ്ട് രാവിലെ വൈകിയുണര്‍ന്നപ്പോള്‍ പത്ത് മണിയായി. അല്പം കഴിഞ്ഞപ്പോള്‍ എന്‍റെ കൂട്ടുകാരി വന്നു. ഇന്ന് ജനുവരി 15. താലിബാന്‍റെ സ്ത്രീ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ നിരോധന നിയമം പ്രാബല്യത്തില്‍ വരുന്നതിന് തൊട്ടു മുമ്പുള്ള ദിവസം. എന്നിട്ടും അസാധാരണമായി ഒന്നും സംഭവിക്കാത്ത പോലെ ഞങ്ങള്‍ സ്കൂളിലെ ഹോം വര്‍ക്കിനെ കുറിച്ച് സംസാരിച്ചിരുന്നു.!

ബി .ബി. സിക്ക് വേണ്ടി ഞാന്‍ എഴുതി പത്രത്തില്‍ പ്രസിദ്ധികരിച്ച എന്‍റെ ഡയറി ഞാന്‍ ഇന്നും വായിച്ചു. ‘ഗുല്‍ മകായി’ എന്ന എന്‍റെ തൂലികാ നാമം ഉമ്മയ്ക്ക് നന്നായി ഇഷ്ടപ്പെട്ടിരുന്നു. എന്നെയിനി ഗുല്‍ മകായി എന്ന് വിളിച്ചാലോ എന്ന് പോലും ഉമ്മ ബാപ്പയോട് പറഞ്ഞു. എന്‍റെ യഥാര്‍ത്ഥ പേരിന്‍റെ അര്‍ഥം ‘ദുഃഖപുത്രി’ എന്നതിനാല്‍ എനിക്കും ഗുല്‍ മകായി എന്ന തൂലികാനാമം തന്നെയാണ് ഇഷ്ടം.

എന്‍റെ ബാപ്പ പറയുകയാ.. ഒരാള്‍ കുറച്ചു ദിവസം മുന്‍പ് എന്‍റെ ഡയറി പ്രസിദ്ധീകരിച്ചത് കാട്ടിയിട്ട് പറഞ്ഞത്രേ, ദേ ഏതോ ഒരു കുട്ടി എഴുതിയിരിക്കുന്നത് കണ്ടോ.. അത്ഭുതമായിരിക്കുന്നു എന്ന്. അത് സ്വന്തം മകള്‍ എഴുതിയതാണെന്ന് പറയാന്‍ പോലും കഴിയാതെ ബാപ്പ വെറുതെ പുഞ്ചിരിക്കുക മാത്രം ചെയ്തു…….

REV FR ROY MULAKUPADOM MCBS (1976-2011)

REV FR ROY MULAKUPADOM MCBS (1976-2011)

“I am the living bread that came down from heaven. Whoever eats of this bread will live forever” Jn 6, 51.

Born – 13th May 1976 at Veroor, Changanassery.

Parents – Chacko Varghese and Thresiamma

Baptism – 23rd May 1976

Confirmation-  4th May 1985

STUDIES

Primary SchoolSt Mary’s LP School, Veroor (1980-1984)

High School – St Berchmans, Changanassery (1984-1990)

Ecclesial Studies – Kurichi, Changanassery (1990-1992)

Pre Degree – SB College, Changanassery (1992-1994)

Degree – SB College, Changanassery (1994-1997)

MCBS

Minor Seminary – Lisieux, Athirampuzha (1997-1999)

Novitiate – MCBS Novitiate House, Kanjirappally (1999-2000)

First Profession – 31st May 2000

Philosophy – Jeevalaya Institute of Philosophy, Bangalore (2000-2003)

Theology – Mary Matha Major Seminary, Thrissur (2003-2006)

Final Profession – 7th May 2005

Priestly Ordination – 28th December 2006 by Mar Joseph Powathil

MINISTRIES

Assistant Parish Priest – Little Flower Church, Kaduvakulam (2007)

Parish Priest – St Antony’s Church, Anikad, Changanassery (2008)

Procurator – Divya Karunya Maria Bhavan, Mallappally (2008)

Director – Karunya Nikethan, Chengalur (2009)

Procurator – Blessed Sacrament Ashram, Karimpany (2010)

Superior – Lisieux Boys’ Town, Anappara (2011)

Demise – 23rd October 2011

REV FR ROY MULAKUPADOM MCBS (1976-2011)

A man of austerity, spirituality and integrity.

A Catholic with deep faith and devotion to the Most Holy Eucharist.

A dedicated religious who enthusiastically lived the evangelical vows.

A holy priest with vision and mission.

An ardent missionary filled with passion and compassion.

An excellent youth animator who searched for the lost, the last and the least.

A zealous retreat preacher who saved many a soul.

A grand shepherd who immolated himself to give life to many.

A great philanthropist who cared the abandoned and oppressed.

A sage who did everything for the greater glory of God.

A burning and shining lamp who illumined all those who came to him.

A prophet who raised questions even against rulers and elders.

An intercessor who prayed and fasted for many.

A saint who will continue his blessings from heaven.

“Come, you that are blessed by my Father

Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.

For I was hungry and you gave me food.

I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink.

I was a stranger and you welcomed me.

I was naked and you gave me clothing.

I was sick and you took care of me.

I was in prison and you visited me.

Just as you did it to one of the least of these

who are members of my family,

you did it to me” Mt 25, 34-40

Click here for His Biographical Sketch

Rev Fr Roy Mulakupadom MCBS – A Portrait

Video Clips of the Funeral

Condolence Message by Mar George Alenchery, Major Archbishop

റവ.ഫാ .റോയ് മുളകുപ്പാടം – മുന്‍പേ പറന്ന പക്ഷി

പാടി പ്പറന്നു നീ പോകയാണോ
പാതി മുറിഞ്ഞൊരു പാട്ടുമായ്?
പാറിപ്പറന്നു നീ പോകയാണോ
പാതി മുറിഞ്ഞൊരു വാക്കുമായു?

മൂന്നര പതിറ്റാണ്ട് മൂളിയ വാക്കുകള്‍
മനസ്സിലെ സല്‍ക്കാര മുറിയില്‍
വിളിച്ചിരുത്തി വിളമ്പിയ
സ്നേഹത്തിന്‍ വിരുന്നുകള്‍ !!

ഓര്‍മ്മ പ്പുസ്തക ത്താളില്‍ നീ വരച്ചിട്ട
ക്രിസ്തുവിന്‍ നിറമുള്ള ചിത്രങ്ങള്‍!

പാദം പതിഞ്ഞ പൂഴിയിലൊക്കെയും
നീ പതിപ്പിച്ച പരലോക പാതകള്‍!

നീ മൊഴിഞ്ഞ വാക്കുകള്‍ സ്നാപക സ്മരണകള്‍
നിന്റെ സാന്നിധ്യം വാടാസൌഗന്ധികം !
അഞ്ചുകൊല്ലം കൊണ്ട് നീ ചെയ്ത കര്‍മ്മങ്ങള്‍
ഒരായുസ്സില്‍ തീരാത്ത ചെയ്തികള്‍ !

പാടി ത്തീരാത്ത പാട്ടുമായ് പോകവേ പക്ഷീ,
പാടുന്നു ഞങ്ങള്‍ നീ പാടിപ്പകര്‍ന്ന പാട്ടുകള്‍
പാടി ത്തീരാത്ത പാട്ടുമായ് പോകവേ പക്ഷീ,
പാടുന്നു ഞങ്ങള്‍ നീ പാടിപ്പകര്‍ന്ന വാക്കുകള്‍

പോവുക പക്ഷീ നീ, മുന്‍പേ പോവുക
പിന്‍പേ വരും പക്ഷികള്‍ക്കും
പറക്കാന്‍ പ്രാണനേകുക!!!!!
പോവുക പക്ഷീ നീ, മുന്‍പേ പോവുക
പിന്‍പേ വരും ഞങ്ങള്‍ക്കും
പറക്കാന്‍ പ്രാണനേകുക!!!!!

– മിഖാസ് കൂട്ടുങ്കല്‍

Click here to Download the Audio File of the Poem

St Teresa of Avila

St Teresa of Ávila

St Teresa of Avila
St Teresa of Avila

St. Teresa of Avila, Spanish Carmelite Nun and Mystic

Born in Avila, Spain, on March 28, 1515, St. Teresa was the daughter of a Toledo merchant and his second wife, who died when Teresa was 15, one of ten children. Shortly after this event, Teresa was entrusted to the care of the Augustinian nuns. After reading the letters of St. Jerome, Teresa resolved to enter a religious life. In 1535, she joined the Carmelite Order. She spent a number of relatively average years in the convent, punctuated by a severe illness that left her legs paralyzed for three years, but then experienced a vision of “the sorely wounded Christ” that changed her life forever.

From this point forward, Teresa moved into a period of increasingly ecstatic experiences in which she came to focus more and more sharply on Christ’s passion. With these visions as her impetus, she set herself to the reformation of her order, beginning with her attempt to master herself and her adherence to the rule. Gathering a group of supporters, Teresa endeavored to create a more primitive type of Carmelite. From 1560 until her death, Teresa struggled to establish and broaden the movement of Discalced or shoeless Carmelites. During the mid-1560s, she wrote the Way of Perfection and the Meditations on the Canticle. In 1567, she met St. John of the Cross, who she enlisted to extend her reform into the male side of the Carmelite Order. Teresa died in 1582.

St. Teresa left to posterity many new convents, which she continued founding up to the year of her death. She also left a significant legacy of writings, which represent important benchmarks in the history of Christian mysticism. These works include the Way of Perfection and the Interior Castle. She also left an autobiography, the Life of Teresa of Avila.

The Catholic Encyclopedia includes a lengthy article on St. Teresa of Avila. Another article is available from the Teresian Carmel in Austria.

St. Teresa of Avila

Saint Teresa was born in Avila, Spain, March 28, 1515. She died in Alba, October 4, 1582. Her family origins have been traced to Toledo and Olmedo. Her father, Alonso de Cepeda, was a son of a Toledan merchant, Juan Sanchez de Toledo and Ines de Cepeda, originally from Tordesillas. Juan transferred his business to Avila, where he succeeded in having his children marry into families of the nobility. In 1505 Alonso married Catalina del Peso, who bore him two children and died in 1507. Two years later Alonso married the 15-year-old Beatriz de Ahumada of whom Teresa was born.

Early Life

In 1528, when Teresa was 15, her mother died, leaving behind 10 children. Teresa was the “most beloved of them all.” She was of medium height, large rather than small, and generally well proportioned. In her youth she had the reputation of being quite beautiful, and she retained her fine appearance until her last years (Maria de S. Jose, Libro de recreaciones, 8). Her personality was extroverted, her manner affectionately buoyant, and she had the ability to adapt herself easily to all kinds of persons and circumstances. She was skillful in the use of the pen, in needlework, and in household duties. Her courage and enthusiasm were readily kindled, an early example of which trait occurred when at the age of 7 she left home with her brother Rodrigo with the intention of going to Moorish territory to be beheaded for Christ, but they were frustrated by their uncle, who met the children as they were leaving the city and brought them home (Ephrem de la Madre de Dios, Tiempo y Vida de Sta. Teresa–hereafter abbrev. TV–142-143).

At about 12 the fervor of her piety waned somewhat. She began to take an interest in the development of her natural attractions and in books of chivalry. Her affections were directed especially to her cousins, the Mejias, children of her aunt Dona Elvira, and she gave some thought to marriage. Her father was disturbed by these fancies and opposed them. While she was in this crisis, her mother died. Afflicted and lonely, Teresa appealed to the Blessed Virgin to be her mother. Seeing his daughter’s need of prudent guidance, her father entrusted her to the Augustinian nuns at Santa Maria de Gracia in 1531.

 

Vocation. The influence of Dona Maria de Brinceno, who was in charge of the lay students at the convent school, helped Teresa to recover her piety. She began to wonder whether she had a vocation to be a nun. Toward the end of the year 1532 she returned home to regain her health and stayed with her sister, who lived in Castellanos. Reading the letters of St. Jerome led her to the decision to enter a convent, but her father refused to give his consent. Her brother and confidant, Rodrigo, had just set sail for the war on the Rio de la Plata. She decided to run away from home and persuaded another brother to flee with her in order that both might receive the religious habit. On Nov. 2, 1535, she entered the Carmelite Monastery of the Incarnation at Avila, where she had a friend, Juana Suarez; and her father resigned himself to this development. The following year she received the habit and began wholeheartedly to give herself to prayer and penance. Shortly after her profession she became seriously ill and failed to respond to medical treatment. As a last resort her father took her to Becedas, a small village, to seek the help of a woman healer famous throughout Castile, but Teresa’s health did not improve. Leaving Becedas in the fall of 1538, she stayed in Hortigosa at the home of her uncle Pedro de Cepeda, who gave her the Tercer Abecedario of Francis of Osuna to read.

 

    “I did not know,” she said, “how to proceed in prayer or how to become recollected, and so I took much pleasure in it and decided to follow that path with all my strength” (Libro de la Vida, the autobiography of St. Teresa–hereafter abbrev. V–4.6).

 

Instead of regaining her health, Teresa grew even more ill, and her father brought her back to Avila in July 1539. On August 15 she fell into a coma so profound that she was thought to be dead. After 4 days she revived, but she remained paralyzed in her legs for 3 years. After her cure, which she attributed to St. Joseph (V. 6.6-8), she entered a period of mediocrity in her spiritual life, but she did not at any time give up praying. Her trouble came of not understanding that the use of the imagination could be dispensed with and that her soul could give itself directly to contemplation. During this stage, which lasted 18 years, she had transitory mystical experiences. She was held back by a strong desire to be appreciated by others, but this finally left her in an experience of conversion in the presence of an image of “the sorely wounded Christ” (V 9.2). This conversion dislodged the egoism that had hindered her spiritual development. Thus, at the age of 39, she began to enjoy a vivid experience of God’s presence within her.

However, the contrast between these favors and her conduct, which was more relaxed than was thought proper according to the ascetical standards of the time, caused some misunderstanding. Some of her friends, such as Francisco de Salcedo and Gaspar Daza, thought her favors were the work of the devil (V 23.14). Diego de Cetina, SJ, brought her comfort by encouraging her to continue in mental prayer and to think upon the humanity of Christ. Francis Borgia in 1555 heard her confession and told her that the spirit of God was working in her, that she should concentrate upon Christ’s Passion and not resist the ecstatic experience that came to her in prayer. Nevertheless she had to endure the distrust even of her friends as the divine favors increased. When Pradanos left Avila in 1558 his place as Teresa’s director was taken by Baltasar Alvarez, SJ, who, either from caution or with the intention of probing her spirit, caused her great distress by telling her that others were convinced that her raptures and visions were the work of the devil and that she should not communicate so often (V 25.4). Another priest acting temporarily as her confessor, on hearing her report of a vision she had repeatedly had of Christ, told her it was clearly the devil and commanded her to make the sign of the cross and laugh at the vision (V 29.5). But God did not fail to comfort her, and she received the favor of the transverberation (V 29.13-14). In August 1560 St. Peter of Alcantara counseled her: “Keep on as you are doing, daughter; we all suffer such trials.”

Reformer

Her great work of reform began with herself. She made a vow always to follow the more perfect course, and resolved to keep the rule as perfectly as she could (V 32.9). However, the atmosphere prevailing at the Incarnation monastery was less than favorable to the more perfect type of life to which Teresa aspired. A group assembled in her cell one September evening in 1560, taking their inspiration from the primitive tradition of Carmel and the discalced reform of St. Peter of Alcantara, proposed the foundation of a monastery of an eremitical type. At first her confessor, the provincial of the Carmelites, and other advisers encouraged her in the plan (TV 478-482); but when the proposal became known among the townsfolk, there was a great outcry against it. The provincial changed his mind, her confessor dissociated himself from the project, and her advisers ranged themselves with the opposition. Six months later, however, when there was a change of rectors at the Jesuit college, her confessor, Father Alvarez, gave his approval. Without delay Teresa had her sister Juana and her husband Juan de Ovalle buy a house in Avila and occupy it as though it were for themselves (V 33.11). This stratagem was necessary to obviate difficulties with nuns at the Incarnation while the building was being adapted and made ready to serve as a convent. At Toledo, where she was sent by the Carmelite provincial at the importunate request of a wealthy and noble lady, she received a visit from St. Peter of Alcantara, who offered to act as mediator in obtaining from Rome the permissions needed for the foundation. While there she also received a visit from the holy Carmelite Maria de Yepes, who had just returned from Rome with permission to establish a reformed convent and who provided Teresa with a new light on the question of the type of poverty to be adopted by her own community. At Toledo she also completed in reluctant obedience to her confessor the first version of her Vida.

She returned to Avila at the end of June 1562 (TV 506-507), and shortly thereafter the apostolic rescript, dated Feb. 7, 1562, for the foundation of the new convent arrived. The following August 24 the new monastery dedicated to S. Jose was founded; Maestro Daza, the bishop’s delegate, officiated at the ceremony. Four novices received the habit of the Discalced Carmelites. There was strong opposition among the townspeople and at the Incarnation. The prioress at the Incarnation summoned Teresa back to her monastery, where the Carmelite provincial Angel de Salazar, indignant at her having put her new establishment under the jurisdiction of the bishop, rebuked her, but after hearing her account of things, was mollified and even promised to help quiet the popular disturbance and to give her permission to return to S. Jose when calm had been restored. On August 25 the council at Avila met to discuss the matter of the new foundation, and on August 30 a great assembly of the leading townspeople gathered. The only one in the assembly to raise his voice against the popular indignation was Domingo Banez, OP. A lawsuit followed in the royal court, but before the end of 1562 the foundress, as Teresa of Jesus, was authorized by the provincial to return to the new convent. There followed the 5 most peaceful years of her life, during which she wrote the Way of Perfection and the Meditations on the Canticle.

Foundations

In April 1567 the Carmelite general, Giovanni Battista Rossi (Rubeo), made a visitation, approved Teresa’s work, and commanded her to establish other convents with some of the nuns from the convent of the Incarnation at Avila. He also gave her permission to establish two houses for men who wished to adopt the reform. The extension of Teresa’s work began with the foundation of a convent at Medina del Campo, Aug. 15, 1567. Then followed other foundations: at Malagon in 1568; at Valladolid (Rio de Olinos) in 1568; at Toledo and at Pastrana in 1569; at Salamanca in 1570; and at Alba de Tormes in 1571. As she journeyed to Toledo in 1569 she passed through Duruelo, where John of the Cross and Anthony of Jesus had established the first convent of Discalced Brethren in November 1568, and in July 1569 she established the second monastery of Discalced Brethren in Pastrana.

These foundations were followed by an interval during which Teresa served as prioress at the Incarnation monastery in Avila, an office to which she was appointed by the apostolic visitator, Pedro Fernandez, OP. This duty she was loath to assume, and she had much opposition to face on the part of the community. However, with the help of St. John of the Cross, who served as a confessor for the nuns, she was able to bring about a great improvement in the spiritual condition of the community. On Nov. 18, 1572, while receiving Communion from the hands of John of the Cross, she received the favor of the “spiritual marriage.” At the request of the Duchess of Alba she spent the first days of 1573 in Alba, and then went to Salamanca to put things in order at the foundation there. At the command of Jerome Ripalda, SJ, she started her Book of the Foundations the following August. On March 19, 1574, she established a foundation at Segovia, where the Pastrana nuns had been transferred because of conflicts with the Princess of Eboli. This marked the beginning of a second series of fonndations. The next was made at Beas de Segura in February 1575. There Teresa met Jerome Gratian, apostolic visitator of the order in Andalucia, who ordered a foundation in Seville. The bishop objected, however, and Teresa sent Ana de S. Alberto to Caravaca to make a foundation there in her name on Jan. 1, 1576, and that of the Seville convent was delayed until June 3 of the same year.

Crisis Between the Calced and Discalced

The entry of the Discalced Brethren into Andalusia was forbidden by Rossi, the general of the order, who opposed Teresa and Jerome Gratian in this matter. The general chapter at Piacenza in 1575 ordered the Discalced Brethren to withdraw from Andalusia, and Teresa herself was ordered to retire to a convent. The general put Jerome Tostado at the head of the Discalced Brethren. While the conflict raged between the Calced and Discalced Brethren, Teresa wrote the Visitation of the Discalced Nuns, a part of The Foundations, and her greatest book, The Interior Castle. The nuncio Nicholas Ormaneto, a defender of the Discalced Brethren, died June 18, 1578, and his successor, Felipe Sega, was less favorably disposed toward them. John of the Cross was imprisoned in Toledo. Against Teresa’s will the Discalced Brethren held a chapter in Almodovar on Oct. 9, 1578. The nuncio annulled the chapter and by a decree put the Discalced Brethren under the authority of the Calced provincials who subjected them to some harassment. The King intervened, and four were named to advise the nuncio, among them Pedro Fernandez, OP. Angel de Salazar was made vicar-general of the Discalced Brethren while negotiations were afoot for the separation of the Discalced from the Calced Brethren and the erection of a Discalced province.

Teresa then turned to visiting her convents and resumed the founding of new ones. On Feb. 25, 1580, she gave the habit to foundresses of the convent in Villaneuva de la Jara. The brief Pia consideratione, dated June 22, 1580, ordered the erection of a distinct province for the Discalced. On March 3, 1581, the chapter of the Discalced was held in Alcala, and Jerome Gratian, who was favored by Teresa, was elected the first provincial. Teresa’s last foundations were: at Palencia and Soria in 1581, at Burgos in 1582; the most difficult of all, Granada (1582), was entrusted to the Venerable Anne of Jesus.

Teresa’s body was interred in Alba. Paul V declared her a blessed April 24, 1614, and in 1617 the Spanish parliament proclaimed her the Patroness of Spain. Gregory XV canonized her in 1622 together with SS. Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Isidore, and Philip Neri.

Spiritual Doctrine

Among the writings of St. Teresa, three can be indicated as the depositories of her spiritual teaching: her autobiography, the Way of Perfection, and the Interior Castle. Readers must exercise some caution, however, and resist the temptation to hastily synthesize the doctrine in these books, because St. Teresa wrote from her personal experience at different stages of the spiritual life. For example, the doctrine of prayer found in the autobiography is not identical with that in the Interior Castle; more than a decade had elapsed between their composition, and Teresa had meanwhile attained a higher degree of spiritual maturity with its simultaneous expansion of experience. The autobiography, written primarily as a manifestation of her spiritual state for her directors, was later enlarged in scope and in audience. Chapters 11 to 22 inclusive–a later addition–are devoted exclusively to the discussion of prayer, although additional comments and examples are scattered throughout the remaining 28 chapters. Teresa depicts different stages of the life of prayer in metaphorical terms taken from the manner of securing water to irrigate a garden. The “first water” is laboriously obtained from a well and carried in a bucket to the garden; this is in reference to beginners who, liberated from the more flagrant mortal sins, apply themselves to discursive prayer of meditation, although they experience fatigue and aridity from time to time. After speaking at length of meditation in its stricter meaning, Teresa made a brief reference to “acquired” contemplation before beginning her discussion of the “second water.” In this second stage, the gardener secures water through use of a windlass and bucket; here Teresa refers to the “prayef of quiet, a gift of God through which the individual begins to have a passive experience of prayer. The third method of irrigation is the employment of water from a stream or river; the application made by Teresa is to the “sleep of the faculties.” Although Teresa considered this an important stage in the evolution of prayer when she wrote her autobiography, she later relegated it to a simple intensification of the “prayer of quiet” in the Interior Castle. The fourth method of irrigation is God given: the rain; Teresa employs this metaphor to describe a state of union in prayer in which the soul is apparently passive.

Her Way of Perfection Teresa addressed to her nuns, teaching them therein the major virtues that demand their solicitude, casting further light on the practice of prayer, and using the Pater Noster as a vehicle for teaching prayer at greater depth. This book is sometimes referred to as the apex of Teresa’s ascetical doctrine. The Interior Castle is the principal source of mature Teresian thought on the spiritual life in its integrity. Chief emphasis is laid on the life of prayer, but other elements (the apostolate, for example) are also treated. The interior castle is the soul, in the center of which dwells the Trinity. Growth in prayer enables the individual to enter into deeper intimacy with God–signified by a progressive journey through the apartments (or mansions) of the castle from the outermost to the luminous center. When a man has attained union with God in the degree permitted to him in this world, he is “at the center” of himself; in other words, he has integrity as a child of God and as a human being. Each of the apartments of the castle is distinguished by a different stage in the evolution of prayer, with its consequent effects upon every other phase of the life of the individual.

St. Teresa of Avila – Doctor of the Church

Less than twenty years before Teresa was born in 1515, Columbus opened up the Western Hemisphere to European colonization. Two years after she was born, Luther started the Protestant Reformation. Out of all of this change came Teresa pointing the way from outer turmoil to inner peace.

Teresa’s father was rigidly honest and pious, but he may have carried his strictness to extremes. Teresa’s mother loved romance novels but because her husband objected to these fanciful books, she hid the books from him. This put Teresa in the middle — especially since she liked the romances too. Her father told her never to lie but her mother told her not to tell her father. Later she said she was always afraid that no matter what she did she was going to do everything wrong.

When she was five years old she convinced her older brother that they should, as she says in her Life, “go off to the land of the Moors and beg them, out of love of God, to cut off our heads there.” They got as far as the road from the city before an uncle found them and brought them back. Some people have used this story as an early example of sanctity, but this author think it’s better used as an early example of her ability to stir up trouble.

After this incident she led a fairly ordinary life, though she was convinced that she was a horrible sinner. As a teenager, she cared only about boys and clothes and flirting and rebelling — like other teenagers throughout the ages. When she was 16, her father decided she was out of control and sent her to a convent. At first she hated it but eventually she began to enjoy it — partly because of her growing love for God, and partly because the convent was a lot less strict than her father.

Still, when the time came for her to choose between marriage and religious life, she had a tough time making the decision. She’d watched a difficult marriage ruin her mother. On the other hand being a nun didn’t seem like much fun. When she finally chose religious life, she did so because she though that it was the only safe place for someone as prone to sin as she was.

Once installed at the Carmelite convent permanently, she started to learn and practice mental prayer, in which she “tried as hard as I could to keep Jesus Christ present within me….My imagination is so dull that I had no talent for imagining or coming up with great theological thoughts.” Teresa prayed this way off and on for eighteen years without feeling that she was getting results. Part of the reason for her trouble was that the convent was not the safe place she assumed it would be.

Many women who had no place else to go wound up at the convent, whether they had vocations or not. They were encouraged to stay away from the convents for long period of time to cut down on expenses. Nuns would arrange their veils attractively and wear jewelry. Prestige depended not on piety but on money. There was a steady stream of visitors in the parlor and parties that included young men. What spiritual life there was involved hysteria, weeping, exaggerated penance, nosebleeds, and self- induced visions.

Teresa suffered the same problem that Francis of Assisi did — she was too charming. Everyone liked her and she liked to be liked. She found it too easy to slip into a worldly life and ignore God. The convent encouraged her to have visitors to whom she would teach mental prayer because their gifts helped the community economy. But Teresa got more involved in flattery, vanity and gossip than spiritual guidance. These weren’t great sins perhaps but they kept her from God.

Then Teresa fell ill with malaria. When she had a seizure, people were so sure she was dead that after she woke up four days later she learned they had dug a grave for her. Afterwards she was paralyzed for three years and was never completely well. Yet instead of helping her spiritually, her sickness became an excuse to stop her prayer completely: she couldn’t be alone enough, she wasn’t healthy enough, and so forth. Later she would say, “Prayer is an act of love, words are not needed. Even if sickness distracts from thoughts, all that is needed is the will to love.”

For years she hardly prayed at all “under the guise of humility.” She thought as a wicked sinner she didn’t deserve to get favors from God. But turning away from prayer was like “a baby turning from its mother’s breasts, what can be expected but death?”

When she was 41, a priest convinced her to go back to her prayer, but she still found it difficult. “I was more anxious for the hour of prayer to be over than I was to remain there. I don’t know what heavy penance I would not have gladly undertaken rather than practice prayer.” She was distracted often: “This intellect is so wild that it doesn’t seem to be anything else than a frantic madman no one can tie down.” Teresa sympathizes with those who have a difficult time in prayer: “All the trials we endure cannot be compared to these interior battles.”

Yet her experience gives us wonderful descriptions of mental prayer: “For mental prayer in my opinion is nothing else than an intimate sharing between friends; it means taking time frequently to be alone with him who we know loves us. The important thing is not to think much but to love much and so do that which best stirs you to love. Love is not great delight but desire to please God in everything.”

As she started to pray again, God gave her spiritual delights: the prayer of quiet where God’s presence overwhelmed her senses, raptures where God overcame her with glorious foolishness, prayer of union where she felt the sun of God melt her soul away. Sometimes her whole body was raised from the ground. If she felt God was going to levitate her body, she stretched out on the floor and called the nuns to sit on her and hold her down. Far from being excited about these events, she “begged God very much not to give me any more favors in public.”

In her books, she analyzed and dissects mystical experiences the way a scientist would. She never saw these gifts as rewards from God but the way he “chastised” her. The more love she felt the harder it was to offend God. She says, “The memory of the favor God has granted does more to bring such a person back to God than all the infernal punishments imaginable.”

Her biggest fault was her friendships. Though she wasn’t sinning, she was very attached to her friends until God told her “No longer do I want you to converse with human beings but with angels.” In an instant he gave her the freedom that she had been unable to achieve through years of effort. After that God always came first in her life.

Some friends, however, did not like what was happening to her and got together to discuss some “remedy” for her. Concluding that she had been deluded by the devil, they sent a Jesuit to analyze her. The Jesuit reassured her that her experiences were from God but soon everyone knew about her and was making fun of her.

One confessor was so sure that the visions were from the devil that he told her to make an obscene gesture called the fig every time she had a vision of Jesus. She cringed but did as she was ordered, all the time apologizing to Jesus. Fortunately, Jesus didn’t seem upset but told her that she was right to obey her confessor. In her autobiography she would say, “I am more afraid of those who are terrified of the devil than I am of the devil himself.” The devil was not to be feared but fought by talking more about God.

Teresa felt that the best evidence that her delights came from God was that the experiences gave her peace, inspiration, and encouragement. “If these effects are not present I would greatly doubt that the raptures come from God; on the contrary I would fear lest they be caused by rabies.”

Sometimes, however, she couldn’t avoid complaining to her closest Friend about the hostility and gossip that surrounded her. When Jesus told her, “Teresa, that’s how I treat my friends” Teresa responded, “No wonder you have so few friends.” But since Christ has so few friends, she felt they should be good ones. And that’s why she decided to reform her Carmelite order.

At the age of 43, she became determined to found a new convent that went back to the basics of a contemplative order: a simple life of poverty devoted to prayer. This doesn’t sound like a big deal, right? Wrong.

When plans leaked out about her first convent, St. Joseph’s, she was denounced from the pulpit, told by her sisters she should raise money for the convent she was already in, and threatened with the Inquisition. The town started legal proceedings against her. All because she wanted to try a simple life of prayer. In the face of this open war, she went ahead calmly, as if nothing was wrong, trusting in God.

“May God protect me from gloomy saints,” Teresa said, and that’s how she ran her convent. To her, spiritual life was an attitude of love, not a rule. Although she proclaimed poverty, she believed in work, not in begging. She believed in obedience to God more than penance. If you do something wrong, don’t punish yourself — change. When someone felt depressed, her advice was that she go some place where she could see the sky and take a walk. When someone was shocked that she was going to eat well, she answered, “There’s a time for partridge and a time for penance.” To her brother’s wish to meditate on hell, she answered, “Don’t.”

Once she had her own convent, she could lead a life of peace, right? Wrong again. Teresa believed that the most powerful and acceptable prayer was that prayer that leads to action. Good effects were better than pious sensations that only make the person praying feel good.

At St. Joseph’s, she spent much of her time writing her Life. She wrote this book not for fun but because she was ordered to. Many people questioned her experiences and this book would clear her or condemn her. Because of this, she used a lot of camouflage in the book, following a profound thought with the statement, “But what do I know. I’m just a wretched woman.” The Inquisition liked what they read and cleared her.

At 51, she felt it was time to spread her reform movement. She braved burning sun, ice and snow, thieves, and rat-infested inns to found more convents. But those obstacles were easy compared to what she face from her brothers and sisters in religious life. She was called “a restless disobedient gadabout who has gone about teaching as though she were a professor” by the papal nuncio. When her former convent voted her in as prioress, the leader of the Carmelite order excommunicated the nuns. A vicar general stationed an officer of the law outside the door to keep her out. The other religious orders opposed her wherever she went. She often had to enter a town secretly in the middle of the night to avoid causing a riot.

And the help they received was sometimes worse than the hostility. A princess ordered Teresa to found a convent and then showed up at the door with luggage and maids. When Teresa refused to order her nuns to wait on the princess on their knees, the princess denounced Teresa to the Inquisition.

In another town, they arrived at their new house in the middle of the night, only to wake up the next morning to find that one wall of the building was missing.

Why was everyone so upset? Teresa said, “Truly it seems that now there are no more of those considered mad for being true lovers of Christ.” No one in religious orders or in the world wanted Teresa reminding them of the way God said they should live.

Teresa looked on these difficulties as good publicity. Soon she had postulants clamoring to get into her reform convents. Many people thought about what she said and wanted to learn about prayer from her. Soon her ideas about prayer swept not only through Spain but all of Europe.

In 1582, she was invited to found a convent by an Archbishop but when she arrived in the middle of the pouring rain, he ordered her to leave. “And the weather so delightful too” was Teresa’s comment. Though very ill, she was commanded to attend a noblewoman giving birth. By the time they got there, the baby had already arrived so, as Teresa said, “The saint won’t be needed after all.” Too ill to leave, she died on October 4 at the age of 67.

She is the founder of the Discalced Carmelites. In 1970 she was declared a Doctor of the Church for her writing and teaching on prayer, one of two women to be honored in this way.

St. Teresa is the patron saint of Headache sufferers. Her symbol is a heart, an arrow, and a book. She was canonized in 1622.

Copyright 1996-2000 by Terry Matz. All Rights Reserved.

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from Wikipedia

Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, (March 28, 1515 – October 4, 1582) was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, and writer of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be, along with John of the Cross, a founder of the Discalced Carmelites.

In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV, and in 1970 named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI. Her books, which include her autobiography, The Life of Teresa of Jesus, and her seminal work, El Castillo Interior (The Interior Castle), are an integral part of the Spanish Renaissance literature as well as Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practices as she entails in her other important work Camino de Perfección (The Way of Perfection).

Early life

Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada was born in 1515 in Gotarrendura, in the province of Ávila, Spain. Her paternal grandfather, Juan de Toledo, was a marrano (Jewish convert to Christianity) and was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition for allegedly returning to the Jewish faith. Her father, Alonso Sánchez de Cepeda, bought a knighthood and successfully assimilated into Christian society. Teresa’s mother, Beatriz, was especially keen to raise her daughter as a pious Christian. Teresa was fascinated by accounts of the lives of the saints, and ran away from home at age seven with her brother Rodrigo to find martyrdom among the Moors. Her uncle stopped them as he was returning to the city, having spotted the two outside the city walls.

In the cloister, she suffered greatly from illness. Early in her sickness, she experienced periods of religious ecstasy through the use of the devotional book “Tercer abecedario espiritual,” translated as the Third Spiritual Alphabet (published in 1527 and written by Francisco de Osuna). This work, following the example of similar writings of medieval mystics, consisted of directions for examinations of conscience and for spiritual self-concentration and inner contemplation (known in mystical nomenclature as oratio recollectionis or oratio mentalis). She also employed other mystical ascetic works such as the Tractatus de oratione et meditatione of Saint Peter of Alcantara, and perhaps many of those upon which Saint Ignatius of Loyola based his Spiritual Exercises and possibly the Spiritual Exercises themselves.

The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini, Basilica of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.

She claimed that during her illness she rose from the lowest stage, “recollection”, to the “devotions of silence” or even to the “devotions of ecstasy”, which was one of perfect union with God. During this final stage, she said she frequently experienced a rich “blessing of tears.” As the Catholic distinction between mortal and venial sin became clear to her, she says she came to understand the awful terror of sin and the inherent nature of original sin. She also became conscious of her own natural impotence in confronting sin, and the necessity of absolute subjection to God.

Saint Teresa of Jesus from the Church of Saint Marin Bled (Slovenia).

Around 1556, various friends suggested that her newfound knowledge was diabolical, not divine. She began to inflict various tortures and mortifications of the flesh upon herself. But her confessor, the Jesuit Saint Francis Borgia, reassured her of the divine inspiration of her thoughts. On St. Peter’s Day in 1559, Teresa became firmly convinced that Jesus Christ presented himself to her in bodily form, though invisible. These visions lasted almost uninterrupted for more than two years. In another vision, a seraph[4] drove the fiery point of a golden lance repeatedly through her heart, causing an ineffable spiritual-bodily pain.

This vision was the inspiration for one of Bernini’s most famous works, the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa at Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome.

The memory of this episode served as an inspiration throughout the rest of her life, and motivated her lifelong imitation of the life and suffering of Jesus, epitomized in the motto usually associated with her: Lord, either let me suffer or let me die.

Activities as reformer

The incentive to give outward practical expression to her inward motive was inspired in Teresa by the Franciscan priest Saint Peter of Alcantara who became acquainted with her as Founder early in 1560, and became her spiritual guide and counselor. She now resolved to found a reformed Carmelite convent, correcting the laxity which she had found in the Cloister of the Incarnation and others. Guimara de Ulloa, a woman of wealth and a friend, supplied the funds. Teresa worked for many years encouraging Spanish Jewish converts to follow Christianity.

The absolute poverty of the new monastery, established in 1562 and named St. Joseph’s (San José), at first excited a scandal among the citizens and authorities of Ávila, and the little house with its chapel was in peril of suppression; but powerful patrons, including the bishop himself, as well as the impression of well-secured subsistence and prosperity, turned animosity into applause.

In March 1563, when Teresa moved to the new cloister, she received the papal sanction to her prime principle of absolute poverty and renunciation of property, which she proceeded to formulate into a “Constitution”. Her plan was the revival of the earlier, stricter rules, supplemented by new regulations such as the three disciplines of ceremonial flagellation prescribed for the divine service every week, and the discalceation of the nun. For the first five years, Teresa remained in pious seclusion, engaged in writing.

Church window at the Convent of St Teresa.

In 1567, she received a patent from the Carmelite general, Rubeo de Ravenna, to establish new houses of her order, and in this effort and later visitations she made long journeys through nearly all the provinces of Spain. Of these she gives a description in her “Libro de las Fundaciones.” Between 1567 and 1571, reform convents were established at Medina del Campo, Malagon, Valladolid, Toledo, Pastrana, Salamanca, and Alba de Tormes.

As part of her original patent, Teresa was given permission to set up two houses for men who wished to adopt the reforms; she convinced John of the Cross and Anthony of Jesus to help with this. They founded the first convent of Discalced Carmelite Brethren in November 1568 at Duruello. Another friend, Gerónimo Grecian, Carmelite visitator of the older observance of Andalusia and apostolic commissioner, and later provincial of the Teresian reforms, gave her powerful support in founding convents at Segovia (1571), Beas de Segura (1574), Seville (1575), and Caravaca de la Cruz (Murcia, 1576), while the deeply mystical John, by his power as teacher and preacher, promoted the inner life of the movement.

In 1576 a series of persecutions began on the part of the older observant Carmelite order against Teresa, her friends, and her reforms. Pursuant to a body of resolutions adopted at the general chapter at Piacenza, the “definitors” of the order forbade all further founding of convents. The general chapter condemned her to voluntary retirement to one of her institutions. She obeyed and chose St. Joseph’s at Toledo. Her friends and subordinates were subjected to greater trials.

Teresa of Ávila by François Gérard (1770−1837), a French painter

Finally, after several years her pleadings by letter with King Philip II of Spain secured relief. As a result, in 1579, the processes before the inquisition against her, Grecian, and others were dropped, which allowed the reform to continue. A brief of Pope Gregory XIII allowed a special provincial for the younger branch of the discalced nuns, and a royal rescript created a protective board of four assessors for the reform.

During the last three years of her life, Teresa founded convents at Villanueva de la Jara in northern Andalusia (1580), Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Burgos, and Granada (1582). In total seventeen convents, all but one founded by her, and as many men’s cloisters were due to her reform activity of twenty years.

Her final illness overtook her on one of her journeys from Burgos to Alba de Tormes. She died in 1582, just as Catholic nations were making the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar, which required the removal of October 5–14 from the calendar. She died either before midnight of October 4 or early in the morning of October 15, which is celebrated as her feast day. Her last words were: “My Lord, it is time to move on. Well then, may your will be done. O my Lord and my Spouse, the hour that I have longed for has come. It is time to meet one another.[5]

In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV. The Cortes exalted her to patroness of Spain in 1617, and the University of Salamanca previously conferred the title Doctor ecclesiae with a diploma. The title is Latin for Doctor of the Church, but is distinct from the papal honor of Doctor of the Church, which is always conferred posthumously and was finally bestowed upon her by Pope Paul VI in 1970 along with Saint Catherine of Siena making them the first women to be awarded the distinction. Teresa is revered as the Doctor of Prayer. The mysticism in her works exerted a formative influence upon many theologians of the following centuries, such as Francis of Sales, Fénelon, and the Port-Royalists[disambiguation needed].

Statue of Saint Teresa of Ávila.

Mysticism

“It is love alone that gives worth to all things.” – St. Teresa of Avila

The kernel of Teresa’s mystical thought throughout all her writings is the ascent of the soul in four stages (The Autobiography Chs. 10-22):

The first, or “mental prayer”, is that of devout contemplation or concentration, the withdrawal of the soul from without and specially the devout observance of the passion of Christ and penitence (Autobiography 11.20).

The second is the “prayer of quiet”, in which at least the human will is lost in that of God by virtue of a charismatic, supernatural state given of God, while the other faculties, such as memory, reason, and imagination, are not yet secure from worldly distraction. While a partial distraction is due to outer performances such as repetition of prayers and writing down spiritual things, yet the prevailing state is one of quietude (Autobiography 14.1).

The “devotion of union” is not only a supernatural but an essentially ecstatic state. Here there is also an absorption of the reason in God, and only the memory and imagination are left to ramble. This state is characterized by a blissful peace, a sweet slumber of at least the higher soul faculties, a conscious rapture in the love of God.

The fourth is the “devotion of ecstasy or rapture,” a passive state, in which the consciousness of being in the body disappears (2 Corinthians 12:2-3). Sense activity ceases; memory and imagination are also absorbed in God or intoxicated. Body and spirit are in the throes of a sweet, happy pain, alternating between a fearful fiery glow, a complete impotence and unconsciousness, and a spell of strangulation, intermitted sometimes by such an ecstatic flight that the body is literally lifted into space. This after half an hour is followed by a reactionary relaxation of a few hours in a swoon-like weakness, attended by a negation of all the faculties in the union with God. From this the subject awakens in tears; it is the climax of mystical experience, productive of the trance. (Indeed, she was said to have been observed levitating during Mass on more than one occasion (The Interior Castle St Teresa Of Avila translated by Mirabai Starr.)

Teresa is one of the foremost writers on mental prayer, and her position among writers on mystical theology is unique. In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly. Her definition was used in the Catechism of the Catholic Church: “Contemplative prayer [oración mental] in my opinion is nothing else than a close sharing between friends; it means taking time frequently to be alone with him who we know loves us.”[6]

Throughout her writings, persistent metaphors provide a vivid illustration of the image of mystic prayer as watering a garden.

Writings

This is the one portrait of Teresa that is probably the most true to her appearance. It is a copy of an original painting of her in 1576 at the age of 61.

Teresa’s writings, produced for didactic purposes, stand among the most remarkable in the mystical literature of the Catholic Church:

  • The “Autobiography,” written before 1567, under the direction of her confessor, Fr Pedro Ibáñez;[7]
  • ” El Camino de Perfección”, written also before 1567, at the direction of her confessor;[8]
  • “Meditations on Song of Songs”, 1567, written nominally for her daughters at the convent of Our Lady of Mount Carmel
  • “El Castillo Interior”, written in 1577;[9]
  • “Relaciones”, an extension of the autobiography giving her inner and outer experiences in epistolary form.
  • Two smaller works are the “Conceptos del Amor” (“Concepts of Love”) and “Exclamaciones”. In addition, there are “Las Cartas” (Saragossa, 1671), or her correspondence, of which there are 342 extant letters and 87 fragments of others. St Teresa’s prose is marked by an unaffected grace, an ornate neatness, and charming power of expression, together placing her in the front rank of Spanish prose writers; and her rare poems (“Todas las poesías”, Munster, 1854) are distinguished for tenderness of feeling and rhythm of thought.

Excerpts

                                                 Let nothing disturb thee,
Nothing affright thee;
All thing are passing;
God never changeth;
Patient endurance
Attaineth to all things;
Who God possesseth
In nothing is wanting
Alone God sufficeth.
-Liturgy of the Hours
[10]

In Spanish, it is a song called “Nada te turbe” after the first line.

Saint Teresa, who reported visions of Jesus and Mary, was a strong believer in the power of holy water and wrote that she used it with success to repel evil and temptations.[11] She wrote:[12]

I know by frequent experience that there is nothing which puts the devils to flight like holy water.

Let nothing disturb you.
Let nothing make you afraid.
All things are passing.
God alone never changes.
Patience gains all things.
If you have God you will want for nothing.
God alone suffices.
~The bookmark of Teresa of Avila
[13]

Saint Teresa and Infant Jesus of Prague

Though there are no written historical accounts proving that Teresa of Avila ever owned the Infant Jesus of Prague statue,[14] a pious legend recounts a tale when Avila once allegedly owned the statue and gave it away to a noblewoman travelling to Prague.[15][16]

However, what is historically known is that Teresa always did carry a portable statue of the Child Jesus wherever she went, as she is so portrayed in the 1984 Teresa de Jesús (film), and shown in the movie protecting this infant statue in her many calamitous travels. In some scenes, the other religious sisters take turn in changing its vestments. The devotion to the child-Jesus spread quickly in Spain most likely due to her mystical visions.[17]

During one of these travels, another popular legend tells that Saint Teresa de Avila once saw a young boy who asked her name. She replied Yo Soy Teresa de Jesus!, to which he replied Yo Soy Jesus de Teresa!.[18] The Discalced Carmelites today administer the pilgrim Church of Our Lady Victorious, where the Infant Jesus of Prague is currently enshrined.[19]

Similarly, in Raymond Arroyo’s biography of Mother Angelica, she recounts a similar event seeing an apparition of the child Jesus in Colombia. Allegedly having a brief conversation which the child, she later discovers him to be the Divino Nino of Bogota.[20] Mother Angelica is also a known devotee of the Infant Jesus of Prague statue.[21]

Portrayals

  • “St. Teresa” was painted in 1819–20 by François Gérard, a French neoclassical painter.
  • Saint Teresa was the inspiration for one of Bernini’s most famous sculptures, The Ecstasy of St. Teresa in Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome.
  • Simone de Beauvoir singles out Teresa as a woman who lived her life for herself (perhaps the only woman to do so) in her book The Second Sex.
  • Saint Teresa is the subject of the song “Theresa’s Sound World ” by Sonic Youth off the 1992 albulm “Dirty”, lyrics by Thurston Moore.
  • Saint Teresa features prominently in Joan Osborne’s song with the same name.
  • She is a principal character of the opera Four Saints in Three Acts by the composer Virgil Thomson with a libretto by Gertrude Stein.
  • She is mentioned prominently in Kathryn Harrison’s novel Poison. The main character, Francisca De Luarca, is fascinated by her life.
  • R. A. Lafferty was strongly inspired by El Castillo Interior when he wrote his novel Fourth Mansions. Quotations from St. Teresa’s work are frequently used as chapter headings.
  • Pierre Klossowski prominently features Saint Teresa of Ávila in his metaphysical novel Baphomet.
  • George Eliot compared Dorothea Brooke to St. Teresa in Middlemarch (1871–1872) and wrote briefly about the life and works of St. Teresa in the “Prelude” to the novel.
  • The contemporary poet Jorie Graham features Saint Teresa in the poem Breakdancing in her volume The End of Beauty.
  • Paz Vega stars as Teresa in Teresa, el cuerpo de Cristo, a 2007 Spanish biopic directed by Ray Loriga.
  • Barbara Mujica’s novel Sister Teresa, while not strictly hagiographical, is based upon Teresa’s life.
  • St. Teresa was the subject of a 1959 play, “La Madre”; she was portrayed by actress Kate Wilkinson.
  • Performance artist Linda Montano has cited Teresa of Ávila as one of the most important influences on her work and since her return to Catholicism in the 2000s has done performances of her life.
  • Concha Velasco portrays Teresa in Teresa de Jesús (film), a 1984 television miniseries directed by Josefina Molina.
  • Timothy Findley’s 1999 novel Pilgrim features St. Teresa as a minor character.

See also

  • Visions of Jesus and Mary
  • Saints and levitation
  • Carmelite Rule of St. Albert
  • Book of the First Monks
  • Constitutions of the Carmelite Order
  • Byzantine Discalced Carmelites
  • Spanish Renaissance literature
  • Asín on mystical analogies in St. Teresa of Avila and Islam
  • Mental prayer
  • Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites
  • Teresa de Jesús, 1984 Spanish language mini-series

Notes

  1. ^ At some hour of the night between October 4 and October 15, 1582, the night of the transition in Spain from the Julian to the Gregorian Calendar
  2. ^ Notable Lutheran Saints
  3. ^ The Church Calendar
  4. ^ Teresa wrote that it must be a cherub (Deben ser los que llaman cherubines), but Fr. Domingo Báñez wrote in the margin that it seemed more like a seraph (mas parece de los que se llaman seraphis), an identification that most editors have followed. Santa Teresa de Ávila. “Libro de su vida“. Escritos de Santa Teresa.
  5. ^ 2000 Years of Prayer by Michael Counsell 2004 ISBN 1-85311-623-8 page 207
  6. ^ Catechism para. 2709
  7. ^ Pedro Ibáñez, “La Vida de la Santa Madre Teresa de Jesús”, Madrid, 1882; English translation, The Life of S. Teresa of Jesus, London, 1888.
  8. ^ “El Camino de Perfección”, Salamanca, 1589; English translation, “The Way of Perfection”, London, 1852.
  9. ^ “El Castillo Interior,” English translation, “The Interior Castle,” London, 1852, comparing the contemplative soul to a castle with seven successive interior courts, or chambers, analogous to the seven heavens.
  10. ^ Litany to Saint Teresa of Avila
  11. ^ Bielecki, pp 238-241
  12. ^ Teresa of Avila, 2008 Life of St. Teresa of Jesus ISBN 1-60680-041-8 page 246
  13. ^ Teresa of Avila. Let Nothing Disturb You: A Journey to the Center of the Soul with Teresa of Avila. Editor John Kirvan. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1996. ISBN 0-87793-570-X
  14. ^ http://www.ewtn.com/library/christ/infhist.txt
  15. ^ http://www.pragjesu.info/en/history_infant_jesus.htm
  16. ^ http://devotionsandprayers.blogspot.com/2009/09/infant-of-prague.html
  17. ^ http://saints.sqpn.com/infant-jesus-of-prague/
  18. ^ http://www.carmelitesistersocd.com/who/infant.asp
  19. ^ http://www.pragjesu.info/en/carmel.htm
  20. ^ – Mother Angelica’s pp. 90-91
  21. ^ http://www.bobandpennylord.com/childjesus.htm

References

Further reading

  • “The Interior Castle – The Mansions,” TAN Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-89555-604-2
  • “The Way of Perfection,” TAN Books, 1997. ISBN 978-0-89555-602-8
  • Teresa of Avila, “The Book of Her Life” (Translated, with Notes, by Kieran Kavanaugh, OCD and Otilio Rodriguez, OCD. Introduction by Jodi Bilinkoff). Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0-87220-907-7
  • “The Delighted Angel” drama about Teresa of Ávila and Rabija al-Adavija by Dževad Karahasan, Vienna-Salzburg-Klagenfurt, ARBOS 1995.
  • “The Interior Castle (Edited by E. Allison Peers),” Doubleday, 1972. ISBN 978-0-385-03643-6
  • “The Way of Perfection (Translated and Edited by E. Allison Peers),” Doubleday, 1991. ISBN 978-0-385-06539-9
  • “The Life of Teresa of Jesus: The Autobiography of Teresa of Avila (Translated by E. Allison Peers),” Doubleday, 1991. ISBN 978-0-385-01109-9
  • “Teresa of Avila: An Extraordinary Life”, Shirley du Boulay, Bluebridge, 1995 ISBN 978-0-9742405-2-7
  • “Teresa: Outstanding Christian Thinkers,” Rowan Williams, Continuum, 1991. ISBN 0-8264-5081-4
  • “The Eagle and the Dove” Saint Teresa of Avila and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. by Vita Sackville-West. First published in 1943 by Michael Joseph LTD, 26 Bloomsbury Street, London, W.C.1
  • “Castles in the Sand” fiction with cited sources about Teresa of Avila by Carolyn A. Greene, Lighthouse Trails Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-0-9791315-4-7
  • “15 Days of Prayer with Saint Teresa of Avila” by Jean Abiven, New City Press, 2011. ISBN 978-1-56548-366-8
  • Bárbara Mujica, Teresa de Ávila: Lettered Woman (Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press, 2009).
  • E. Rhodes, “Teresa de Jesus’s Book and the Reform of the Religious Man in Sixteenth Century Spain,” in Laurence Lux-Sterritt and Carmen Mangion (eds), Gender, Catholicism and Spirituality: Women and the Roman Catholic Church in Britain and Europe, 1200-1900 (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011),
  • The Life, Miracles and Revelations of St. Teresa of Avila: The Ecstatic Saint of Jesus Christ
  • “St. Teresa, Virgin”, Butler’s Lives of the Saints
  • Statue of St Teresa in St Peter’s Basilica
  • Biography Online: St Teresa of Avila
  • Patron Saints: Saint Teresa of Avila
  • Carmelite Vocation
  • Books written by St Teresa of Avila, including St John of the Cross
  • Works by Teresa of Avila at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Teresa of Ávila in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Basilica of Saint Teresa in Alba de Tormes (in Spanish)
  • Alba de Tormes: la Basílica Teresiana, piedras vivas- Living Stones (in Spanish, YouTube)
  • Alba de Tormes, sepulcro de Santa Teresa – Tomb of Saint Teresa (in Spanish, YouTube)
  • Convent of St Teresa in Avila
  • Poems of St Teresa
  • Santa Teresa: an Appreciation, 1900, by Alexander Whyte, from Project Gutenberg
  • “St. Teresa of Avila”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

ചെവിയ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ അണുബാധകള്‍

ചെവിയില്‍ അല്‍പ്പം സ്വകാര്യം

ചെവിയില്‍ എന്തു അസ്വസ്ഥത തോന്നിയാലും ഉടന്‍ തന്നെ ബഡ്സിനെ ആശ്രയിക്കുന്നത് എല്ലാവരുടെയും ശീലമാണ്. എന്നാല്‍ താല്‍ക്കാലിക ആശ്വാസത്തിനായി ബഡ്സിനെ ആശ്രയിക്കുന്നത് ഭാവിയില്‍ മാരകമായ പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കും. കൂട്ടികളായാലും, മുതിര്‍ന്നവരായാലും ബഡ്സിന്റെ ദൂഷ്യം ഒരുപോലെ തന്നെ.

കുഞ്ഞുങ്ങള്‍ അനുഭവിക്കുന്ന ഒരു പ്രധാന പ്രശ്നമാണ് ചെവിയിലെ അണുബാധ. കുട്ടികളില്‍ കണ്ടുവരുന്ന ചെവിരോഗങ്ങള
്‍ ചെറുപ്പകാലം മുതല്‍ തന്നെ പരിശോദിച്ച് പ്രതിവിധി കണ്ടെത്തണം. ശൈശവ രോഗങ്ങള്‍ ഒരു പ്രായമെത്തുമ്പോള്‍ മാറുമെങ്കിലും ചെറുപ്പത്തില്‍ കൃത്യമായ സംരക്ഷണവും, വിദഗ്ദ ചികിത്സയും നല്‍കേണ്ടത് അത്യാവശ്യമാണ്. ഇല്ലാത്ത പക്ഷം ഭാവിയില്‍ അത് മാരകമായ പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് വഴിവെയ്ക്കാന്‍ സാധ്യതയുണ്ട്.

മുതിര്‍ന്നവരെ അപേക്ഷിച്ച് കുട്ടികളില്‍ പെട്ടന്ന് തന്നെ അസുഖങ്ങള്‍ പകരാനും വളരാനും കാരണമാകുന്നു. കുട്ടികളില്‍ രണ്ടു രീതിയിലാണ് പ്രധാനമായും അണുബാധയുണ്ടാകുന്നത്. കുട്ടികളിലുണ്ടാകുന്ന ജലദോഷം, തൊണ്ടവേദന തുടങ്ങിയ അസുഖങ്ങളില്‍ നിന്നുമാണ് സാധാരണ രീതിയില്‍ അണുബാധ ഉണ്ടാവുക. ചെറിയ വേദന സംഹാരികള്‍ വഴി ഇത്തരം വേദനകളെ തടയാന്‍ കഴിയും. എന്നാല്‍ ബഡ്സ് പോലെയുള്ള വസ്തുക്കള്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ചെവിയില്‍ ചെറിയ രീതിയിലെങ്കിലും പോറലിനോ പൊട്ടലിനോ കാരണമാകുന്നു.

ഇത്തരത്തിലുണ്ടാകുന്ന മുറിവുകള്‍ പിന്നീട് ഗുരുതരമായ പ്രശ്നമായി മാറുന്നു. ചെവിയുടെ കേള്‍വി ശക്തിയെത്തന്നെ ബാധിക്കും. തുറന്നു വെച്ചിരിക്കുന്ന രീതിയിലുള്ള ബഡ്സുകളാണെങ്കില്‍ അവയില്‍ ഫംഗസ്സും മറ്റും ഉണ്ടാവാനുള്ള സാധ്യതയുണ്ട്. ഇത്തരം ബഡ്സിന്റെ ഉപയോഗം ചെവിയില്‍ അണുബാധയ്ക്കുള്ള സാധ്യത വര്‍ദ്ധിപ്പിക്കുന്നു.

ചെവിയ്ക്കള്ളിലെ വാക്സ് (ചെവിക്കായം)നീക്കം ചെയ്യാനാണ് ഏറിയ പങ്കും ബഡ്സ് ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത്. എന്നാല്‍ നിത്യേന ചെവിയിലെ വാക്സ് നീക്കം ചെയ്യണം എന്നത് തെറ്റായ ധാരണയാണ്. ചെവിയിലെ ഗ്രന്ഥികളുടെ പ്രവര്‍ത്തന ഫലമായുണ്ടാകുന്ന വാക്സ് തനിയെ നിര്‍മ്മാര്‍ജ്ജനം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള പ്രവര്‍ത്തനവും ചെവിക്കുള്ളില്‍ തന്നെ നടക്കുന്നുവെന്നതാണ് സത്യം.

ചെവിയുടെ പാടയില്‍ സുഷിരങ്ങളുണ്ടെങ്കിലാണ് അണുബാധയുണ്ടാകാന്‍ മറ്റൊരു സാധ്യത. കുട്ടികളില്‍ ജലദോഷമുണ്ടാകുന്നതിനൊപ്പം ചെവിയില്‍നിന്ന് ഏതെങ്കിലും രീതിയിലുള്ള അണുബാധകൂടി പുറത്തേയ്ക്ക് വരികയാണങ്കില്‍ അത് ചെവിയുടെ പാടയില്‍ സുഷിരങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടായതിന്റെ ഭാഗമായി കണക്കാകുകയും ഉടനടി ചികിത്സ തേടുകയും ചെയ്യണം. പന്ത്രണ്ട് വയസ്സുവരെ കുട്ടികളില്‍ മരുന്നുകള്‍ വഴി പ്രതിവിധി നേടാന്‍ കഴിയും. എന്നാല്‍ ചെവിയിലെ അസുഖങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് ചെവിയില്‍ മരുന്നുപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് ഹാനികരമാണെന്നാണ് വൈദ്യശാസ്ത്ര പഠനങ്ങള്‍ പറയുന്നത്. മരുന്നുകളുടെ ഉപയോഗം ചെവിക്കുള്ളിലെ ഞരമ്പുകള്‍ക്ക് കേടുകളുണ്ടാക്കുന്നു.

ചെവിയ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ അണുബാധയില്‍ തന്നെ പഴക്കമുള്ള അണുബാധകള്‍ തലച്ചോറിനെപ്പോലും ബാധിച്ചേയ്ക്കാം. ഇതുവഴി തലച്ചോറിലെ ഞരമ്പുകള്‍ ക്ഷയം സംഭവിക്കുകയും അത് മത്തിഷ്ക്കാഘാതത്തിന് തന്നെ കാരണവുമായേക്കാം. രോഗം വന്നിട്ട് ചികിത്സിക്കുന്നതിനേക്കാള്‍ രോഗം വരാതെ നോക്കുന്നതാണ് നല്ലത്. ഒരു ചെറിയ ബഡ്സിന്റെ അശ്രദ്ധമായ ഉപയോഗം ഇത്രയേറെ രോഗങ്ങള്‍ ക്ഷണിച്ചു വരുത്തുമെങ്കില്‍ ചെവിയുടെ ആരോഗ്യത്തിനായി ബഡ്സിനോട് വിട പറയുന്നത് തന്നെയാകും നല്ലത്

ഉദര രോഗങ്ങള്‍ക്കുമുള്ള ചില ആയുര്‍വേദ ഒറ്റമൂലികള്‍

നമ്മുടെ ഉദര സംബന്ദമായ എല്ലാ രോഗങ്ങള്‍ക്കും മുഖ്യ കാരണങ്ങളില്‍ ഒന്ന് ദഹനക്കുറവാണ്. നാം കഴിക്കുന്ന ആഹാരം ശെരിയായ രീതിയില്‍ ദഹിക്കുയാണെങ്കില്‍ ഒരു വിധം ഉദര രോഗങ്ങള്‍ ഒന്നും തന്നെ നമ്മെ അലട്ടുകയില്ല. നാം ആഹാരം കഴിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ വായ നിറച്ചു ഒരിക്കലും കഴിക്കരുത്. അങ്ങിനെ കഴിച്ചാല്‍ ഭക്ഷണത്തില്‍ ശെരിയായ രീതിയില്‍ ആഹാരം ദഹിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള ഉമിനീര്‍ ലഭിക്കുകയില്ല.. ഭക്ഷണം കുറച്ചു മാത്രം എടുത്തു വായിലിടുകയും

അത് നന്നായി ചവച്ചരച്ചു കഴിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യ്താല്‍ മാത്രമേ നാം കഴിക്കുന്ന ആഹാരത്തിലുള്ള നമുക്ക് വേണ്ട വിറ്റാമിന്സും മിനറല്‍സും നമുക്ക് ലഭിക്കുകയുള്ളൂ. നമ്മുടെ ഉമിനീരിനു നമ്മുടെ ശരീരത്തിന് വേണ്ട ഘടകങ്ങള്‍ വലിചെടുക്കാനും ആവശ്യമില്ലാത്തത് പുറം തള്ളാനുമുള്ള കഴിവുണ്ട്. സാവധാനം നന്നായി ചവച്ചരച്ചു ഭക്ഷണം കഴിക്കുന്ന ഒരാള്‍ക്ക് ഡോക്ടറെ കാണേണ്ട അവസ്തയുണ്ടാകില്ല.

ദഹനത്തിനും അത് പോലെ മറ്റു ഉദര രോഗങ്ങള്‍ക്കുമുള്ള ചില ആയുര്‍വേദ ഒറ്റമൂലികള്‍ താഴെ കൊടുക്കുന്നു.
ദഹനം എളുപ്പമാകാന്‍ കറിവേപ്പിലയിട്ട് തിളപ്പിച്ച വെള്ളം പതിവായി കുടിക്കുക.
മൂന്നോ നാലോ വെളുത്തുള്ളി ചതച്ച് ഒരു ഗ്ലാസ്‌ പശുവിന്‍ പാലിലിട്ടു ഇരട്ടി വെള്ളമൊഴിച്ചു തിളപ്പിച്ച്‌ അല്പം പഞ്ചസാര ചേര്‍ത്തു കഴിക്കുക. ഗ്യാസ് ട്രബിള്‍ മാറിക്കിട്ടും.
പത്തു ഗ്രാം പഞ്ചസാര വറുത്ത് കറുപ്പ് നിറമാകുമ്പോള്‍ വെള്ളത്തില്‍ കലക്കി കുടിച്ചാല്‍ വയറു വേദന ശമിക്കും.
അമ്പഴത്തിന്റെ തൊലി ചതച്ച് ഒരു സ്പൂണ്‍ നീരെടുത്ത് ഒരു ഗ്ലാസ്‌ അട്ടിന്‍പാലില്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് രാവിലെ വെറും വയറ്റില്‍ കഴിക്കുക. നല്ല ശോദന ലഭിക്കും.
വയറു വേദനക്ക് പച്ച ഇഞ്ചി ഇടിച്ചു പിഴിഞ്ഞ് അര ഔന്‍സ് നീരെടുത്ത് അതില്‍ ഒരു നുള്ള് ഉപ്പും ഒരു കാന്താരിമുളകും ചേര്‍ത്തു രാവിലെ വെറും വയറ്റില്‍ കഴിക്കുക.
ഒരു ചെറിയ സ്പൂണ്‍ അയമോദകം ഒന്നര ലിറ്റര്‍ വെള്ളത്തിലിട്ടു തിളപ്പിച്ച്‌ അരിച്ചു പലതവണ കുടിക്കുക..
ഒരു വലിയ സ്പൂണ്‍ കൃഷ്ണതുലസിയില പിഴിഞ്ഞ നീര് കുടിച്ചാല്‍ വയറു വേദന മാറും…
ജാതിക്ക അരച്ചത്‌ കല്‍ ചെറിയ സ്പൂണ്‍ , ഒരു സ്പൂണ്‍ തേന്‍ ചേര്‍ത്തു കഴിച്ചാല്‍ വയറിളക്കം പെട്ടെന്ന് സുഖമാവും.
ദഹനക്കേട്‌ മാറാന്‍ ഒരു ചെറിയ കഷ്ണം ഇഞ്ചിയും രണ്ടോ മോന്നോ വെളുത്തുള്ളിയും നന്നായി ചവച്ചു കഴിക്കുക.
ഒരു കഷ്ണം ഇഞ്ചി ഉപ്പുകല്ല് ചേര്‍ത്തു ചവച്ചു കഴിച്ചാല്‍ പെട്ടെന്ന് ദഹനം നടക്കും.
വെളുത്തുള്ളി നാലോ അഞ്ചോ അല്ലി ചുട്ടു തിന്നാല്‍ ഗ്യാസ് ട്രബിള്‍ ശമിക്കും.
കുമ്പളങ്ങാ നീരോ മാതളനാരങ്ങ നീരോ ഒരു ഗ്ലാസ് രാവിലെ വെറും വയറ്റില്‍ കഴിക്കുക. ദഹന ശക്തിക്ക് നല്ലതാണ്.

രോഗ ചികിത്സക്കും പ്രതിരോധത്തിനും ഉപയോഗിക്കാവുന്ന നാട്ടു ചികിത്സകളാണ് ഇത്. പ്രകൃതിദത്തമായ ചേരുവകളാല്‍ മാത്രം തയ്യാറാക്കുന്നതിനാല്‍ പാര്‍ശ്വഫലങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാകുന്നില്ല എന്നതാണ് ഒറ്റമൂലികളുടെ സവിശേഷത.

പഞ്ചസാര – വെളുത്ത വിഷം

പഞ്ചസാര, വെളുത്ത വിഷം എന്ന പേരിലാണ് പൊതുവേ അറിയപ്പെടുന്നത്. ഗാന്ധിജി ഇതിനെ വെളുത്ത വിഷം എന്നായിരുന്നു വിളിച്ചിരുന്നത്‌. നമുക്കിടയില്‍ പഞ്ചസാര ഒരിക്കലും ഒഴിച്ചുകൂടാന്‍ പറ്റാത്ത ഒന്നായി മാറിയിരിക്കുന്നു. എങ്ങിനെയാണ് പഞ്ചസാര ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നതെന്നോ എന്തെല്ലാം ചേര്‍ത്താണ് ഇതുണ്ടാക്കുന്നതെന്നോ നമ്മില്‍ പലര്‍ക്കും അറിയില്ല. സത്യത്തില്‍ ഇതില്‍ അടങ്ങിയിരിക്കുന്ന രാസവസ്ത്തുക്കളെ കുറിച്ച് നാം ഓരോരുത്തരും അറിയേണ

്ടതുണ്ട്. അത് ഒരുപക്ഷെ പഞ്ചസാരയുടെ ഉപയോഗത്തിന്റെ അളവ് ചുരുക്കാന്‍ നമ്മെ സഹായിക്കും.

എന്താണ് പഞ്ചസാര..? , കരിമ്പില്‍ നിന്നും ജൂസെടുത്ത് അതിലെ കളറും, വിറ്റാമിനുകളും, മിനറലുകളും, കാത്സ്യവും, ഫോസ്ഫറസും മാറ്റി ബ്ലീച്ച് ചൈയ്ത് വെളുപ്പ്‌ നിറമാക്കി 23 തരം കെമിക്കല്‍ ചേര്‍ത്ത് പൂര്‍ണ്ണ രാസ പതാര്‍ത്ഥമാക്കിയ ക്രിസ്റ്റല്‍ ആണ് വെളുത്ത വിഷം എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന പഞ്ചസാര. ഇത് എത്ര കാലം വേണമെങ്കിലും നമുക്ക് സൂക്ഷിക്കാം… പ്രിസര്‍വേറ്റര്‍ ആയും പഞ്ചസാര ഉപയോഗിക്കാം. പഞ്ചസാരയില്‍ സ്റ്റാര്‍ച്ച് മാത്രമേ ഉള്ളൂ. ഇത് ആമാശയത്തില്‍ എത്തിയാല്‍ ദഹനം എളുപ്പത്തില്‍ നടക്കുകയില്ല. കരിമ്പ്‌ ജൂസില്‍ നിന്നും നീക്കം ചെയ്ത വസ്തുക്കളായ കാത്സ്യം, ഫോസ്ഫറസ്, മിനറലുകള്‍ തുടങ്ങിയവയുടെ സാന്നിദ്ധ്യത്തില്‍ മാത്രമേ ദഹനം നടക്കുകയുള്ളൂ. ഇവ ഭക്ഷണത്തിലൂടെ നമുക്ക് ലഭിക്കുന്നില്ലെങ്കില്‍ ശരീരം പഞ്ചസാരയെ ദഹിപ്പിക്കാനായി വളരെ ക്ലേശിച്ച് നമ്മുടെ ശരീരത്തില്‍ നിന്നും തന്നെ കാത്സ്യവും ഫോസ്ഫറസും മറ്റു മിനറലുകളും എടുത്ത് ആമാശയത്തിലെത്തിച്ചു ദഹനം നടത്തും.

എവിടെനിന്നാണ് ഇവയെല്ലാം ശരീരം എടുക്കുക…? പല്ലില്‍ നിന്നും എല്ലുകളില്‍ നിന്നും ഞരമ്പുകളില്‍ നിന്നുമാണ് ഇവയെല്ലാം എടുക്കുന്നത്. ചുരുക്കത്തില്‍ പഞ്ചസാര നന്നായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ഒരാളുടെ പല്ല് , എല്ല് , ഞരമ്പുകള്‍ എന്നിവ പെട്ടെന്ന് ക്ഷയിക്കുന്നു. പഞ്ചസാരയില്‍ നാരിന്റെ അംശം ഒട്ടും ഇല്ലാത്തതിനാല്‍ ദഹന ശേഷം കുടലുകളിലും ഇവ പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ ശ്രിഷ്ട്ടിക്കുക്കുന്നു. ഇതിനെല്ലാം പുറമേ പഞ്ചസാരയില്‍ ചേര്‍ക്കുന്ന 23 – ഓളം കെമിക്കലുകളുടെ അംശങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്ന മറ്റു പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ വേറെ. ഈ രാസവസ്ത്തുക്കള്‍ നമ്മുടെ ഉള്ളില്‍ ചെന്നാല്‍ കിഡ്നി വിചാരിച്ചാല്‍ പോലും ഇവ പുറം തള്ളാന്‍ കഴിയില്ല. അങ്ങിനെ ഈ വിഷങ്ങളെ പുറം തള്ളാന്‍ കരളും ത്വക്കും ശ്രമം നടത്തും. അതിനു സാധിക്കുന്നില്ലെങ്കില്‍ ഇവയെല്ലാം കൂടി കരളില്‍ ഒതുക്കി നിറുത്തും. ഈ പ്രക്രിയ പല പ്രാവശ്യം തുടരുമ്പോള്‍ കരള്‍ ക്ഷീണിക്കും. അങ്ങിനെ കരളിനാവശ്യമായ വസ്ത്തുക്കള്‍ കിട്ടുമ്പോഴും അനുയോജ്യമായ അവസരം വരുമ്പോഴും ദുഷിച്ച പിത്ത നീരിലൂടെ ഈ മാലിന്യങ്ങളെ മുഴുവന്‍ പുറം തള്ളും. ഈ പുറം തള്ളലാണ് മഞ്ഞപ്പിത്തമായി മാറുന്നത്. ഇതിനു പ്രധാന കാരണം നമ്മുടെ ശരീരത്തില്‍ അടിഞ്ഞു കൂടുന്ന രാസവസ്ത്തുക്കള്‍ ആണ്.

കിഡ്നിയും കരളും പുറം തള്ളാത്ത ചില രാസവസ്ത്തുക്കള്‍ അടിഞ്ഞു കൂടുമ്പോള്‍ ശരീരം അവയെ ത്വക്കിലേക്ക് മാറ്റുന്നു. തൊലിയിലൂടെ ശരീരം ഈ മാലിന്യങ്ങളെ പുറം തള്ളാന്‍ ശ്രമിക്കുന്നു. മാലിന്യങ്ങളെ പുറം തള്ളുന്ന ജോലിയല്ല തൊലിയുടെത് . തൊലിയിലൂടെയുള്ള ഈ മാലിന്യ വിസര്‍ജ്ജനമാണ് സകല ത്വക്ക് രോഗങ്ങളും നമുക്ക് സമ്മാനിക്കുന്നത്….

ഇങ്ങിനെയൊക്കെ ആണെങ്കിലും പഞ്ചസാര ഒറ്റയടിക്ക് നമുക്ക് നിറുത്തുവാന്‍ സാധിക്കില്ല. എന്നാലും നമുക്ക് കുറച്ചു കൊണ്ടുവരാന്‍ സാധിക്കും അതിനു നാം ശ്രമിക്കണം. ഇല്ലെങ്കില്‍ നാം ദുഖിക്കേണ്ടി വരും….സൂക്ഷിച്ചാല്‍ ദുഖിക്കേണ്ട….!

ഈ സന്ദേശം നമ്മുടെ എല്ലാ കൂട്ടുകാര്‍ക്കും എത്രയും പെട്ടെന്ന് എത്തിക്കുവാന്‍ ശ്രമിക്കണം എന്ന് വിനീതമായി അപേക്ഷിക്കുന്നു.

 

 

 

വായ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ അള്‍സര്‍ ഒഴിവാക്കാം

വായ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ അള്‍സര്‍ ഒഴിവാക്കാം

വായ്ക്കുള്ളില്‍ വരുന്ന അള്‍സര്‍ അഥവാ വായ്പ്പുണ്ണ് ഒരു തവണയെങ്കിലും ഉണ്ടായിട്ടില്ളാത്തവര്‍ ചുരുക്കമാണ്. ഇതുമൂലമുണ്ടാകുന്ന നീറ്റലും പുകച്ചിലും, വെള്ളവും ഭക്ഷണവും ഇറക്കാനുള്ള ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടും സാധാരണ ജീവിതത്തെ വളരെയധികം ബാധിക്കും. അള്‍സര്‍ ഉണ്ടാകാനുള്ള കാരണവും ചികിത്സയും അറിയുന്നത് ഒരു പരിധി വരെ ഇതിനെ തരണം ചെയ്യാന്‍ സഹായിക്കും.

ചെറിയ പാടുകളായോ തടിപ്പുകളായോ കുത്തലോടു കൂടിയ പുകച്ചിലായോ ആണ് ഇതിന്റെ തുടക്കം. വെളുത്തതോ, മഞ്ഞനിറത്തിലോ ഉള്ള നടുഭാഗത്തിനു ചുറ്റു ചുവന്നു തടിച്ച് അതിരുകളോടുകൂടിയ അള്‍സര്‍ വളരെ വേദനയുണ്ടാക്കുന്നതാണ്. അഫത്തസ് അള്‍സര്‍, കോള്‍ഡ്സോര്‍ (ചുണ്ടില്‍ കാണുന്ന ഹെര്‍പ്പിസ് സിംപ്ളക്സ് വൈറസ്സാണു കാരണം) എന്നിങ്ങനെ അള്‍സറിനെ രണ്ടായി തിരിക്കാം. കാരണങ്ങള്‍ വായില്‍ ഉണ്ടാകുന്ന മുറിവുകള്‍, കൂര്‍ത്തിരിക്കുന്ന പല്ളുകള്‍, പൊട്ടിയപല്ളുകള്‍, കൃത്രിമപല്ളുകള്‍ ഇളക്കമുള്ളതായി ഇരിക്കുമ്പോള്‍, പല്ളില്‍ കമ്പിയിടുന്ന ചികിത്സ നടത്തുമ്പോള്‍, പല്ളു തേയ്ക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ഇങ്ങനെ അള്‍സര്‍ വരുന്ന വഴികള്‍ പലതാണ്. കാരണങ്ങള്‍ ചികില്‍സിച്ചു മാറ്റിയാല്‍ തന്നെ അള്‍സറിനെ പൂര്‍ണ്ണമായി മാറ്റാവുന്നതാണ്. കെമിക്കല്‍ ഇന്‍ഞ്ചുറീസ് മരുന്നുകള്‍ ഉദാ. ആസ്പിരിന്‍, ആല്‍ക്കഹോള്‍, ടൂത്ത് പേസ്റില്‍ അടങ്ങിയിരിക്കുന്ന സോഡിയം ലോറൈല്‍ ചിലരില്‍ അള്‍സര്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നു. രോഗാണുബാധ വൈറസ്, ബാക്ടീരിയ, ഫംഗസ്സ്, പ്രോട്ടോസോവന്‍സ് വായ്പുണ്ണിനു കാരണമാകുന്നു. ഏതുകാര്യം ചെയ്യുന്നതിനു മുന്‍പും ശേഷവും കൈകള്‍ വൃത്തിയായി കഴുകുന്നത് രോഗാണുബാധ തടയാന്‍ സഹായിക്കും.

പ്രതിരോധശേഷിക്കുറവ് ആഫ്ത്തസ് അള്‍സറില്‍ പ്രതിരോധശേഷികുറവുമായി ബന്ധമുണ്ട് എന്ന് പഠനങ്ങളില്‍ വെളിപ്പെടുന്നു. അലര്‍ജി വിവിധ തരത്തിലുള്ള ആഹാരസാധനങ്ങള്‍, ചിലതരം എണ്ണ, വീണ്ടും വീണ്ടും ഉപയോഗിച്ച എണ്ണ എന്നിവ ചിലരില്‍ അള്‍സര്‍ ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നു. കാന്‍സര്‍ അള്‍സര്‍ മൂന്നാഴ്ചക്കുമേല്‍ ഉണങ്ങാതെ ഒരേ സഥലത്തു തന്നെ നിലനില്‍ക്കുന്നുവെങ്കില്‍ ഒരു ഡോക്ടറെ കണ്ട് പരിശോധിപ്പിക്കേണ്ടത് ആവശ്യമാണ്. സിസ്റമിക്ക് ഡിസീസസ് ശരീരത്തിലെ മറ്റ് ആന്തരിക അവയവങ്ങളുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ചില രോഗങ്ങളുള്ളവര്‍ക്ക് വായ്ക്കുള്ളിലെ അള്‍സര്‍ ഉണ്ടാകാറുണ്ട്. കുടല്‍ സംബന്ധമായ രോഗങ്ങള്‍ ഉള്ളവര്‍ക്ക് വായില്‍ അള്‍സര്‍ വരാന്‍ സാധ്യതകൂടുതലാണ്. ആത്മസംഘര്‍ഷം, ഹോര്‍മോണുകളുടെ വ്യത്യാസം, ആര്‍ത്തവം, പെട്ടെന്നുള്ള ഭാരം കുറയല്‍, അലര്‍ജി വൈറ്റമിന്‍െറ കുറവുകള്‍ കാലാവസ്ഥാമാറ്റങ്ങള്‍ ഇവയെല്ളാം ഓറല്‍ അള്‍സറിന് കാരണമാകുന്നു.

പ്രമേഹം ഉള്ളവര്‍ അള്‍സര്‍ ഉണ്ടാകാതിരിക്കാന്‍ പ്രത്യേകം ശ്രദ്ധ ചെലുത്തണം. ഏതെങ്കിലും കാരണത്താല്‍ മുറിവുകള്‍ ഉണ്ടായാല്‍ മൌത്ത് വാഷുകളും, ആന്‍റിസെപ്റ്റിക്കുകളും ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് രോഗാണുബാധ ഉണ്ടാകാതിരിക്കാന്‍ സഹായിക്കുന്നു. ചികിത്സ വേദനയും നീറ്റലുമുണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ മാറ്റാനുള്ള ചികിത്സ യും അലര്‍ജിയാണെങ്കില്‍ ആന്‍റിഹിസ്റമിന്‍, സ്റിറോയിഡുകള്‍, എന്നിവയത്മാണ് നല്‍കുക. ആന്റി ഇന്‍ഫ്ളമേറ്ററി മരുന്നുകള്‍ വേദനയ്ക്കും നീര്‍ക്കെട്ടിനും നല്‍കുന്നു. ചെറിയ ചൂടുവെള്ളത്തില്‍ ഉപ്പിട്ടു വായില്‍ കൊള്ളുന്നത് ഗുണം ചെയ്യും. ആന്‍റിസെപ്റ്റിക്ക് മൌത്ത് വാഷുകള്‍ ആന്‍റിസെപ്റ്റിക്ക് ലോക്കല്‍ അനസ്തെറ്റിക്ക് ജെല്ളുകള്‍ എന്നിവ അള്‍സര്‍ രോഗാണുബാധയുണ്ടാകാതിരിക്കുവാന്‍ സഹായിക്കുന്നു.

ചെറിയ ചൂടുവെള്ളത്തില്‍ ഉപ്പിട്ടു വായില്‍ കൊള്ളുന്നത് ഗുണം ചെയ്യും. ആന്‍റിസെപ്റ്റിക്ക് മൌത്ത് വാഷുകള്‍ ആന്‍റിസെപ്റ്റിക്ക് ലോക്കല്‍ അനസ്തെറ്റിക്ക് ജെല്ളുകള്‍ എന്നിവ അള്‍സര്‍ രോഗാണുബാധയുണ്ടാകാതിരിക്കുവാന്‍ സഹായിക്കുന്നു.

Japamala / ജപമാലയുരുളുമ്പോള്‍

*ആ തല്ല് എനിക്കു സഹിക്കാന്‍ സാധിച്ചില്ല… “ഒന്നര വയസ്സുള്ള ആ കുഞ്ഞിനെ ഒരു
കൊന്ത പൊട്ടിച്ചുവെന്നു പറഞ്ഞു ഇങ്ങനെ തല്ലണോ? പഴകി ദ്രവിച്ച ആ കൊന്ത
പൊട്ടിയില്ലെങ്കിലെ അത്ഭുതമുള്ളൂ”, ഞാന്‍ അമ്മയെ തറപ്പിച്ചു നോക്കി; അമ്മ
തിരിച്ചും. കൊച്ചുകുഞ്ഞുങ്ങളെ ഇപ്രകാരം തല്ലിയാല്‍ ഭാവിയില്‍ ഉണ്ടാകാവുന്ന
മാനസിക വൈകാരിക പ്രശ്നങ്ങളെ അറിവിന്‍റെ മുകളിലിരുന്നു ഞാന്‍ അമ്മക്ക്
മുമ്പില്‍ വിളമ്പി.” ഇനി നിന്‍റെ psychology എന്‍റെ മുമ്പില്‍ നിരത്തിയാല്‍
നീയും തല്ല് കൊള്ളും”- അമ്മ വലിയ ദ്വേഷ്യത്തില്‍ത്തന്നെ..
“നീയോര്‍ക്കുന്നുണ്ടോ ഈ കൊന്ത” പൊട്ടിയ കൊന്ത അമ്മ എന്‍റെ നേര്‍ക്ക്‌ നീട്ടി.
തേഞ്ഞുമാഞ്ഞുപോയ ആ കൊന്ത ഞാന്‍ തിരിച്ചും മറിച്ചും നോക്കി. ഒരു പഴഞ്ചന്‍ കൊന്ത
എന്‍പതു മോഡല്‍ ആണെന്ന് തോന്നുന്നു. കുരിശൊക്കെ ദ്രവിച്ചു പോയിരിക്കുന്നു.
ഒന്നും പിടികിട്ടിയില്ലെന്ന മട്ടില്‍ ഞാന്‍ ആ മാതൃമുഖത്തേക്ക് മിഴി തിരിച്ചു..
“നീ ആദ്യവ്രതം ചെയ്തു വീട്ടിലെത്തിയ അന്ന് നീയെനിക്ക് സമ്മാനിച്ച കൊന്തയാ.
അന്നുമുതല്‍ ഇന്നു വരെ ഞാന്‍ ഈ കൊന്ത മുടക്കിയിട്ടില്ല.. അതാ ഈ
തേയ്മാനങ്ങള്‍…”,… ചങ്കൊന്നു കാളി… 1997 മുതല്‍ 2012 വരെ … നീണ്ട
പതിനഞ്ചു വര്‍ഷങ്ങള്‍… .,…. സന്തോഷവും പ്രകാശവും ദുഖവും മഹിമയുമായി
അമ്മയുടെ കരങ്ങളിലും അകതാരിലും ഉരുണ്ടു കൊണ്ടിരുന്ന ഈ കൊന്ത അല്ല ഈ
തിരുശേഷിപ്പ്ഞ്ഞി തേഞ്ഞില്ലെങ്കിലേ അത്ഭുതമുള്ളൂ.. ആനന്ദ ത്തോടും നിറഞ്ഞ
കണ്ണുകളോടും കൂടി അമ്മയെ തഴുകിയപ്പോള്‍ കുഞ്ഞിനെ തല്ലിയതിന്‍റെ ദ്വേഷ്യമെല്ലാം
എങ്ങോ പൊയ്മറഞ്ഞിരുന്നു. വിളിച്ചവനോടൊപ്പം എന്നും ചേര്‍ന്നിരിക്കാന്‍,
ദൈവജനത്തിനു മോനൊരു അനുഗ്രഹമാകാന്‍, പരിശുദ്ധ അമ്മയെ കൂട്ടുപിടിച്ച എന്‍റെ
അമ്മ.. കുരുക്കളുരുട്ടിയപ്പോഴൊക്കെ ഈ മോന്‍ ഒരു കുരുക്കിലും ചെന്നു
ചാടരുതെയെന്നു അമ്മ മനമുരുകി പ്രാര്‍ഥിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടാകും… അതെ പിന്നിട്ട
വഴികളിലെയെല്ലാം ശക്തി അമ്മയുടെ ഈ കൈകളിലുരുണ്ട ജപമണികളായിരുന്നു-
കൂട്ടത്തിലെന്‍റെ കൈകളിലേയും..*

*
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*ജപമാല എന്നും ശക്തിയാണ് – ബലമാണ്‌…, അതുരുളുമ്പോള്‍ മനവും ഉരുളണമെന്നു
മാത്രം. നമ്മുടെ കുടുംബങ്ങള്‍ പുറംനാടുകളെക്കാള്‍ കെട്ടുറപ്പുള്ളതായിരിക്കാന്‍
കാരണവും ഇടമുറിയാതെ അന്തിനേരങ്ങളില്‍ കുടുംബം ചേര്‍ത്തുവച്ച ജപമാല
രഹസ്യങ്ങളായിരുന്നു.. ഇന്ന് ഈ കെട്ടുറപ്പ് ഇളകുന്നുണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ അതിനു കാരണം ഈ
ജപമാലയര്‍പ്പിത കുടുംബ കൂട്ടായ്മയില്‍ വരുന്ന പാളിച്ചകളല്ലെയെന്നു
സംശയിക്കേണ്ടിയിരിക്കുന്നു!? ഈ ജപമാല മാസം അനുഗ്രഹ മാസമാകണം. ഉരുളുന്ന
ജപമണികള്‍ക്കൊപ്പം ജീവിതത്തെയും പരിശുദ്ധ അമ്മയിലൂടെ നമ്മുക്ക്
ദൈവത്തിങ്കലെക്കുയര്‍ത്താം- അതാണ്‌ ജീവിത സാഷാത്കാരം.*
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റോസ് പൂക്കളുടെ രാജ്ഞിയാണെങ്കില്‍ റോസറി എല്ലാ ഭക്തികളുടെയും റോസാ
പുഷ്പമാണെന്നാരോ പറഞ്ഞത് എത്രയോ വാസ്തവം. ‘റോസാ പുഷ്പങ്ങളുടെ കിരീടം’
അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ ‘റോസാപുഷ്പങ്ങളുടെ പൂന്തോട്ടം’ എന്നൊക്കെ റോസറിക്ക് അര്‍ഥം
കൈവന്നതില്‍ അത്ഭുതമില്ല! യേശു രഹസ്യങ്ങളെയും അനുഭവങ്ങളെയും ജീവിതത്തില്‍
ആഴത്തിലറിയുവാനും അറിഞ്ഞവയെ ജീവിതത്തില്‍ കൊണ്ടുവരാനും ക്രിസ്തുവെ
മറ്റുള്ളവര്‍ക്ക് കാണിച്ചു കൊടുക്കുവാനും ജപമാല നമ്മെ ശക്തിപ്പെടുത്തും.
“മറിയത്തിലൂടെ ക്രിസ്തുവിലേക്ക്” എന്ന് ശക്തിയുക്തം പ്രഘോഷിച്ച ലൂയീസ് ദെ
മോണ്ട്ഫോര്‍ട്ട്‌ പുണ്യവാളന്‍ ‘എന്നും ജപമാല ചൊല്ലുന്ന വ്യക്തികള്‍ ഒരിക്കലും
നാശത്തില്‍ പതിക്കുകയില്ല’ എന്ന സത്യം സ്വന്തം രക്തകൊണ്ടു പോലും
എഴുതിക്കാണിക്കാമെന്നു ലോകത്തിനു ഉറപ്പ് നല്‍കി. ജപമാലയില്‍ ദര്‍ശിച്ച
ശക്തി-അനുഭവ-ആത്മ വിശ്വാസം നല്‍കിയ ഉറപ്പാണത്‌., ചൊല്ലലില്‍ നിന്നും
അനുഭവത്തിലേക്കുയര്‍ന്നവര്‍ക്കെ

ല്ലാം ഇതു പ്രഘോഷിക്കാന്‍ സാധിക്കും- സാധിക്കണം.
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കൊന്ത ചൊല്ലുന്ന ഒരു സൈന്യത്തെ തന്നാല്‍ ഞാന്‍ ഈ ലോകത്തെ പിടിച്ചടക്കാം’ എന്ന
വാഴ്ത്തപ്പെട്ട പയസ് ix -)മന്‍ പാപ്പയുടെ ശബ്ദം ഇന്നും
ലോകത്തിലലയടിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. വാഴ്ത്തപ്പെട്ട അലെന്‍ ഡ ല റോച്ചെക്കു പ.അമ്മ
നല്‍കിയ വാഗ്ദാനം ‘ജപമാല ചൊല്ലികൊണ്ട്‌ എന്തു ചോദിച്ചാലും ഞാന്‍ നിനക്കു
സാധിച്ചു തരും’ എന്നായിരുന്നു. അതു കൊണ്ടാകും ‘ജപമാല അളവില്ലാത്ത
അനുഗ്രഹങ്ങളുടെ കമനീയ കലവറയാണെന്ന്’ ആ പുണ്യവാളന്‍ പിന്നീട് പറഞ്ഞു
വച്ചത്. പ.അമ്മ പ്രത്യക്ഷപ്പെടുന്ന സ്ഥലങ്ങളിലെല്ലാം ‘കൊന്ത ചൊല്ലുക’
എന്നാണൂന്നിപ്പറയുക. ജപമാലക്ക് ലോകത്തെ കീഴ്മേല്‍ മറയ്ക്കാനാകും.. അന്ധകാരത്തെ
നീക്കാനാകും..കറകള്‍ കഴുകിക്കളയാനാകും… രക്തക്കണ്ണുനീര്‍ വാര്‍ത്തും പല
അടയാളങ്ങള്‍ കാണിച്ചും ഇന്നും ലോകത്തിന്‍റെ പല ഭാഗങ്ങളിലായി ഇതു തന്നെ അമ്മ
പ്രഘോഷിക്കുന്നു. മാതൃ വഴിയിലൂടെ പുത്രനിലേക്ക്… പുത്രനിലൂടെ പിതൃ
വഴിയിലേക്ക്… അതാകട്ടെ നമ്മുടെ ജപമാലകള്‍..*
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വിട്ടുപോയ കണ്ണികള്‍ കൂട്ടിച്ചേര്‍ക്കാന്‍…,… കൂരിരുട്ടില്‍
തപ്പിതടയുന്നവര്‍ക്ക് തിരി തെളിക്കാന്‍…,… കുടമേന്തി വരുന്നവര്‍ക്ക്
കുടംപേറാതെ ദാഹജലം വഹിക്കാന്‍…,… പൊക്കമില്ലെന്നു പരിതപിച്ചു മരം
കയറുന്നവരെ വിളിച്ചിറക്കുവാന്‍…,… വിശക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്ക് സ്വര്‍ഗ്ഗീയ അപ്പം
മുറിച്ചു നല്‍കാന്‍,… ഓങ്ങി നില്‍ക്കുന്ന കല്ലുകള്‍ക്ക് മുമ്പില്‍
സ്വാന്തനത്തിന്‍റെ സുവിശേഷം വരച്ചു കാണിക്കാന്‍…,… പരിത്യജിക്കലുകളുടെയും
കുരിശെടുക്കലുകളുടെയും അനുഭവങ്ങള്‍ സ്വായത്തമാക്കാന്‍…,…
തള്ളിപ്പറയുന്നവര്‍ക്ക് അനുതാപത്തിന്‍റെ കണ്ണീര്‍ പൊഴിക്കുവാന്‍,… ഈ
ജപമണികള്‍ കൂടിയേ തീരൂ…

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*നാം ജപിക്കുന്ന ജപമാലകള്‍,
ക്രിസ്തുവിനെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള അറിവില്‍ നമ്മെ വളര്‍ത്തും… നമ്മുടെ കറകള്‍ കഴുകി
നമ്മെ വിശുദ്ധീകരിക്കും.. വിശുദ്ധിയില്‍ നിലനിര്‍ത്തും… തിന്മകളുടെമേല്‍
ശക്തി തരും… പുണ്യങ്ങളില്‍ നമ്മെ വളര്‍ത്തും… പരിശുദ്ധാത്മ അഗ്നിയില്‍
നമ്മെ ജ്വലിപ്പിക്കും…
കൃപകളും വരങ്ങളും കൊണ്ടു നിറയ്ക്കും… സഹനങ്ങളില്‍ തുണ നല്‍കും…. അങ്ങനെ
ക്രിസ്താനി എന്നു അഭിമാനത്തോടെ പറയാന്‍, ജീവിച്ചു കാണിക്കാന്‍ ജപമാല നമ്മെ
സഹായിക്കും.. ഈ ജപമാല മാസം ജപമാല കരങ്ങളില്‍ ഉയര്‍ന്നിരിക്കട്ടെ.

 

 

 

Fishers of Men: Priestly Life and Vocations Summit

Fishers of Men: Priestly Life and Vocations Summit

 

Letter from Bishop Blase J. Cupich
.pdf

Priests: Men of Word, Sacrament and Initiation”
.pdf

“Fishers of Men” Trailer
RealPlayer | Windows Media Player

Table of Contents
.pdf | .doc

Introduction and Overview
.pdf | .doc

 

Appendices

Appendix A: PowerPoint I for Presbyteral Council
.pdf | .ppt

Appendix B: Timeline for Priestly Life and Vocations Summit
.pdf | .doc

Appendix C: Sample Letter I: From Bishop to Priests
.pdf | .doc

Appendix D: Sample Letter II: To Priests to be Interviewed
.pdf | .doc

Appendix E: Interview Questions
.pdf | .doc

Appendix F: PowerPoint II: Sample of Preist Responses
.pdf | .ppt

Appendix G: PowerPoint III: Priestly Life and Vocations Summit Presentation
.pdf | .ppt

Appendix H: PowerPoint IV: Diocesan Sample
.pdf | .ppt

Appendix I: Schedule
.pdf | .doc

Appendix J: Schedule & Notes
.pdf | .doc

Appendix K: Qualities and Characteristics of a Prospective Priesthood Candidate
.pdf | .doc

Appendix L: Follow-up Responses & Sign-up Sheet
.pdf | .doc

Appendix M: Evaluation Form
.pdf | .doc

 

Resources

Resource A: Articles Regarding Priestly Vocation Efforts
.pdf | .doc

Resource B: Words of Pope John Paul II Inviting Young Men
.pdf | .doc

Resource C: Letter of Invitation to High School Students
.pdf | .doc

Resource D: Discernment Information
.pdf | .doc

Ecclesiastical and Religious Vocation

Ecclesiastical and Religious Vocation

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, follow with a pure intention the ecclesiastical profession of the evangelical counsels. The elements of this vocation are all the interior and exterior helps, the efficacious graces which have led to the taking of the resolution, and all the graces which produce meritorious perseverance.

Ordinarily this vocation is revealed as the result of deliberation according to the principles of reason and faith ; in extraordinary cases, by supernatural light so abundantly shed upon the soul as to render deliberation unnecessary. There are two signs of vocation: the one negative, the absence of impediment ; the other positive, a firm resolution by the help of God to serve Him in the ecclesiastical or religious state.

If God leaves a free choice to the person called, he leaves none to those whose duty it is to advise; those spiritual directors or confessors who treat lightly a matter of such importance, or do not answer according to the spirit of Christ and the Church, incur a grave responsibility. It is their duty also to discover the germ of a vocation, and develop it by forming the character and encouraging the generosity of the will.

These rules are sufficient for a decision to follow the evangelical counsels, as they may be practised even in the world. But the nature of the ecclesiastical state and the positive constitution of the religious state require some further remarks. Unlike the observance of the evangelical counsels, the ecclesiastical state exists primarily for the good of religious society ; and the Church has given the religious state a corporate organization. Those who belong to a religious order not only follow the evangelical counsels for themselves, but are accepted by the Church, more or less officially, to represent in religious society the practice of the rules of perfection; and to offer it to God as a part of public worship. (See RELIGIOUS LIFE; VOWS.) From this it follows that the ecclesiastical profession is not as accessible to all as the religious state; that in order to enter the religious state at the present day, conditions of health, of character, and sometimes of education are required which are not demanded by the evangelical counsels taken in themselves; and that, both for the religious and for the ecclesiastical state, admission by lawful authority is necessary.

At the present day, it is necessary that two wills should concur before a person can enter the religious state; it has always been necessary that two wills should concur before one can enter the ranks of the clergy. The Council of Trent pronounces an anathema on a person who represents as lawful ministers of the Gospel and the sacraments any who have not been regularly ordained and commissioned by ecclesiastical and canonical authority (Sess. XXIII, iii, iv, vii). A vocation which is by many persons called exterior thus comes to be added to the interior vocation; and this exterior vocation is defined as the admission of a candidate in due form by competent authority.

The question of vocation itself so far as the candidate is concerned may be put in these terms: Are you doing a thing which is pleasing to God in offering yourself to the seminary or the novitiate ? And the answer depends on the preceding data: yes, if your intention is honest, and if your strength is sufficient for the work. A further question may be put to the candidate for the priesthood : if you do well in desiring to become a priest, would you perhaps do better by becoming a religious? It is to be remarked that the candidate for the priesthood ought already to have the virtues required by his state, while the hope of acquiring them is sufficient for the candidate for the religious life .

The question an ordinary of a diocese or superior of a religious community should meet is: Considering the general interest of the order or the diocese, is it right that I should accept this or that candidate? And although the candidate has done well in offering himself the answer may be in the negative. For God often suggests plans which He does not require or desire to be carried into effect, though He is preparing the reward which He will bestow on the intention and the trial.

The refusal of the ordinary or superior debars the candidate from entering the lists of the clergy or religious. Hence his approval may be said to complete the Divine vocation. Moreover, in this life a person often enters into indissoluble bonds which God desires to see respected after the fact. It remains therefore for the man who has laid himself under such an obligation to accommodate himself to the state in which God, Who will give him the help of His grace, now wishes him to persevere. This is the express teaching of St. Ignatius in his “Spiritual Exercises”: With regard to this present will of God, it may be said, at least of priests who do not obtain a dispensation, that sacerdotal ordination confers a vocation upon them. This however does not imply that they have done well in offering themselves for ordination.

This appears to give us ground for the true solution of the recent controversies on the subject of vocation.

Two points have been made the subjects of controversy in the consideration of vocation to the ecclesiastical state : how does Divine Providence make its decrees known to men? How does that xxyyyk.htm”>Providence reconcile its decrees with liberty of human action in the choice of a state of life? Cassian explains very clearly the different kinds of vocation to the monastic life, in his “Collatio, III: De tribus abrenuntiationibus”, iii, iv, v (P.L., XLIX, 560-64). The Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries inculcate very strongly the practice of virginity, and endeavour to answer the text, “He that can take, let him take it” ( Matthew 19:12 ), which would seem to limit the application of the counsel. Saint Benedict admitted young children presented by their parents to his order; and the canonical axiom “Monachum aut paterna devotio aut propria professio facit” (c. 3, xx, q. 1), “A man becomes a monk either by parental consecration or by personal profession”, an axiom that was received in the Western Church from the sixth to the eleventh century, shows to what extent the religious life was considered open and to be recommended as a rule to all. A letter of St. Gregory the Great and another of St. Bernard insist on the dangers incurred by those who have decided to embrace the religious life and still remain in the world. The necessity of a special call for embracing the priesthood or the monastic life is not treated by St. Thomas, but the reality of a Divine call to higher states of life is clearly expressed in the sixteenth century, notably in the “Spiritual Exercises” of St. Ignatius. Francisco Suárez worked out a complete theory of vocation (De religione, tr. VII, I-V, viii). Independently of a natural progress which brings new matters into discussion, two causes combined to raise the controversy on this point, viz. the abuse of forced vocations, and a mysticism which is closely related to Jansenism. In former times it was the custom for noble families to place their younger sons in the seminary or some monastery without considering the tastes or qualifications of the candidates, and it is not difficult to see how disastrous this kind of recruiting was to the sacerdotal and religious life. A reaction set in against this abuse, and young men were expected, instead of following the choice of their parents, a choice often dictated by purely human considerations, to wait for a special call from God before entering the seminary or the cloister. At the same time, a semi-Quietism in France led people to believe that a man ought to defer his action until he was conscious of a special Divine impulse, a sort of Divine message revealing to him what he ought to do. If a person, in order to practice virtue, was bound to make an inward examination of himself at every moment, how much more necessary to listen for the voice of God before entering upon the sublime path of the priesthood or monastic life ? God was supposed to speak by an attraction, which it was dangerous to anticipate: and thus arose the famous theory which identified vocation with Divine attraction; without attraction there was no vocation; with attraction, there was a vocation which was, so to speak, obligatory, as there was so much danger in disobedience. Though theoretically free, the choice of a state was practically necessary : “Those who are not called”, says Scavini (Theol. moral., 14th ed., I, i, n. 473), “cannot enter the religious state: those who are called must enter it; or what would be the use of the call?” Other writers, such as Gury (II, n. 148-50), after having stated that it is a grace fault to enter the religious state when conscious of not having been called, correct themselves in a remarkable manner by adding, “unless they have a firm resolution to fulfill the duties of their state”.

For the general conduct of life, we know that God, while guiding man, leaves him free to act, that all good actions are graces of God , and at the same time free acts, that the happiness of heaven will be the reward of good life and still the effect of a gratuitous predestination. We are bound to serve God always, and we know that, besides the acts commanded by Him, there are acts which He blesses without making them obligatory, and that among good acts there are some which are better than others. We derive our knowledge of the will of God, that will which demands our obedience, which approves some of our acts, and esteems some more highly than others, from Holy Scripture and Tradition, by making use of the two-fold light which God has bestowed upon us, faith and reason. Following the general law, “do good and avoid evil “, although we can avoid all that is evil, we cannot do all that is good. To accomplish the designs of God we are called upon to do all the good that we are capable and all that we have the opportunity of doing; and the greater the good, the more special our capability, the more extraordinary the opportunity, so much the more clearly will reason enlightened by faith tell us that God wishes us to accomplish that good. In the general law of doing good, and in the facilities given us to do it, we read a general, or it may be even a special, invitation of God to do it, an invitation which is pressing in proportion to the excellence of the good, but which nevertheless we are not bound to accept unless we discover some duty of justice or charity. Often, too, we have to hesitate in our choice between two incompatible deeds or courses of action. It is a difficulty that arises even when our decision is to influence the rest of our lives as, for instance, should we have to decide whether to emigrate or to remain in our own country. God also may help our choice by interior movements, whether we are conscious of them or not, by inclinations leading us to this or that course of action, or by the counsels of a friend with whom we are providentially brought into contact; or He may even clearly reveal to us His will, or his preference. But this is an exceptional case; ordinarily the inward feeling keeps and confirms our decision, but it is only a secondary motive, and the principal part belongs to sound reason judging according to the teachings of faith. “They have Moses and the prophets “, said Christ in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus ( Luke 16:29 ), and we have no need for any one to rise from the dead to teach us our duty. According to this simple exposition, it seems clear that each good action of ours pleases God, that moreover He specially desires to see us perform certain actions, but that negligences and omissions in either sphere do not generally cause a permanent divergence from our right path. This rule is true even in the case of acts whose results seem manifold and far-reaching. Otherwise, God would be bound to make known to us clearly both His own will and the consequences of our negligence. But the offers of Divine Providence are several or even many, though one may be more pressing than the other; and since every good action is performed by the help of a supernatural grace which precedes and accompanies it, and since with an efficacious grace we would have done the good we have failed to accomplish, we may say, of every good that we do, that we had the vocation to do it, and of every good that we omit, either that we had not the vocation to do it, or, if we were wrong in omitting to do it, that we paid no heed to the vocation. This is true of faith itself. We believe, because we have received an efficacious vocation to believe, which those who live without faith have not received or have rejected when their unbelief is their own fault.

Are these general views applicable to the choice of a state of life? or is that choice governed by special rules? The solution of this question involves that of the vocation itself. The special rules are to be found in Holy Scripture and Tradition. In Holy Scripture we read those general counsels of self-denial which all Christians are called upon to follow during their lives, while they are the object of a more complete application in a state which for that very reason may be called a state of perfection. Efficacious grace, notably that of perfect continence, is not given to all. “All men take not this word, but they to whom it is given. . . . He that can take, let him take it” ( Matthew 19:11, 12 ). Catholic interpreters, however, basing their conclusion on the Fathers of the Church , are at one in saying that God bestows this gift either on all that pray for it as they should, or at any rate on the generality of those who dispose themselves to receive it (see Beelen, Kanbenbauer, on this passage). But the choice is left free. St. Paul, speaking of the same Christian, says “he that giveth his virgin in marriage, doth well; and he that giveth her not, doth better” ( 1 Corinthians 7:38 ). On the other hand, he must be guided by sound reason : “But if they do not contain themselves, let them marry. For it is better to marry than to be burnt” ( 1 Corinthians 7:9 ). Moreover, the Apostle gives this general advice to his disciple Timothy: “I will therefore that the younger [ widows ] should marry” ( 1 Timothy 5:14 ). And yet, whatever his profession or condition, man is not abandoned by xxyyyk.htm”>Providence: “As the Lord has distributed to every one, as God hath called every one, so let him walk” ( 1 Corinthians 7:17 ). Holy Scripture therefore applies to the profession of every man the general principles laid down above. Nor is there any trace of an exception in the Fathers of the Church : they insist on the general application of the evangelical counsels, and on the importance of following them without delay; and on the other hand, they declare that the choice is free, without danger of incurring the loss of God’s favour. They wish, however, that the choice should be prudently and reasonably exercised. See St. Basil, “On virginity “, n. 55, 56; “Constit. monast.”, xx; Ep. CLXXII; “Exhortation to renounce the world”, n. 1 (P.G., XXX, 779-82; XXXI, 626, 1394; XXXII, 647-49); St. Gregory Nazianzen, “Against Julian”, 1st discourse, n. 99; disc. 37, alias 31 on St. Matthew, XIX, xi (P.G., XXXV, 634; XXXVI, 298); St. John Chrysostom, “On virginity “; “On penitence”, Hom. VI, n. 3: “On St. Matthew “, XIX, xi, xxi (P.G., XLVIII, 533 sqq.; XLIX, 318; LVIII, 600, 605); St. Cyprian, “De habitu virginum”, xxiii (P.L., IV, 463); St. Ambrose , “De viduis”, xii, xiii (P.L., XVI, 256, 259); St. Jerome Ep. CXXIII alias XI to Ageruchia; “De monogamia”; “Against Jovinian”, I; On St. Matthew, XIX, xi, xii (P.L., XXII, 1048; XXIII, 227, 228; XXVI, 135, 136); St. Augustine, “De bono coniugali”, x; “De sancta virginitate”, xxx (P.L., XL, 381, 412); St. Bernard, “De præcepto et dispensatione”, i (P.L., CLXXXII, 862). These texts are examined in Vermeersch, “De vocatione religiosa et sacertodali”, taken from the second volume of the same author’s “De religiosis institutis et personis” suppl. 3. In comparison with such numerous and distinct declarations, two or three insignificant passages [ St. Gregory, Ep. LXV (P.L., LXXVII, 603; St. Bernard, Ep. CVII, CVIII (P.L., CLXXXII, 242 sqq., 249 sqq.)], of which the last two date only from the twelfth century, and are capable of another explanation, cannot be seriously quoted as representing vocation as practically obligatory. Neither St. Thomas, “Summa theologica”, I-II, Q. cviii, art. 4; II-II, Q. clxxxix, opusc. 17 alias 3, nor Francisco Suárez “De religione”, tr. VII, V, IV, n. i, 7, and viii; nor Bellarmine “De monachis”, Controv. II; nor Passerini, “De hominum statibus” in Q. CLXXXIX, art. 10, thinks of placing the choice of a state of life in a category apart. And thus we arrive at conclusions which agree with those of Cornelius à Lapide in his commentary on the seventh chapter of I Corinthians, and which recommend themselves by their very simplicity. States of life are freely chosen and at the same time providentially given by God. The higher the state of life the more clearly do we find the positive action of xxyyyk.htm”>Providence in the choice. In the case of most men, no Divine decree, logically anterior to the knowledge of their free actions, assigns to them this or that particular profession. The path of the evangelical counsels is in itself, open to all, and preferable for all, but without being directly or indirectly obligatory. In exceptional cases the obligation may exist as the consequence of a vow or of a Divine order, or of the improbability (which is very rare) of otherwise finding salvation. More frequently reasons of prudence, arising from the character and habits of the persons concerned, make it unadvisable that he should choose what is in itself the best part, or duties of filial piety or justice may make it impossible. For the reasons given above we cannot accept the definition of Lessius ; “Vocation is an affection, an inward force which makes a man feel impelled to enter the religious state, or some other state of life” (De statu vitæ deligendo, n. 56). This feeling is not necessary, and is not to be trusted without reserve, though it may help to decide the kind of order which would best suit us. Nor can we admit the principle adopted by St. Alphonsus: that God determines for every man his state of life (On the choice of a state of life). Cornelius à Lapide, on whose authority St. Alphonsus incorrectly grounds his argument, says, on the contrary, that God often refrains from indicating any preference but that which results from the unequal excellence on honourable conditions. And in the celebrated passage “every one hath his proper gift from God ” ( 1 Corinthians 7:7 ) St. Paul does not intend to indicate any particular profession as a gift of God, but he makes use of a general expression to imply that the unequal dispensation of graces explains the diversity of objects offered for our choice like the diversity of virtues. We agree with Liguori when he declares that whoever, being free from impediment and actuated by a right intention, is received by the superior is called to the religious life. See also St. Francis of Sales, Epistle 742 (Paris, ed. 1833). The rigourist influences to which St. Alphonsus was subjected in his youth explain the severity which led him to say that a person’s eternal salvation chiefly depended on this choice of a state of life conformable to the Divine election. If this were the case, God, who is infinitely good, would make His will known to every man in a way which could not be misunderstood.

Vocation Director

MCBS Seminary

 Athirampuzha

Kottayam – 686 562

 Tel : 0481 2730599, 09495804598

 E- mail : mcbslisieux@gmail.com

mcbslisieux@live.in

mcbslisieux@gmail.com

Website: http://www.lisieux.wordpress.com

Or

Fr Maneesh MCBS

MCBS Seminary

Athirampuzha

Kottayam 686562

Church Documents on Priestly Formation

Church Documents on Priestly Formation

  1. Second Vatican Council Documents: 
  2. Papal Documents: 
  3. Other Documents of the Holy See: 

Archangels

The Catechism of the Catholic Church informs us, “The existence of the spiritual, non-corporeal beings that Sacred Scripture usually calls ‘angels’ is a truth of faith. The witness of Scripture is as clear as the unanimity of Tradition” (328). Charged by God to supply us aid, our guardian angels are eager to help us as our spiritual allies in the earthly battle. They do not begrudgingly engage in this effort, merely as half-hearted servants, but rather pour themselves into it with the full force of their angelic intellect and will, directing their formidable powers toward our success in attaining the everlasting life of heaven.

 
GLADE PARK, CO (Catholic Online) — The whole of salvation history is the story of God reaching out to his people but for one purpose: the reception of divine love. As we read in the Rite of Baptism of Children, “The God of power and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ has freed you from sin and brought you to new life through water and the Holy Spirit” (62). That new, everlasting life is life in Christ, the light of men (Jn 1:4), who came to give life in abundance (Jn 10:10). 

God the Father has given us his Son on the cross as the supreme example of sacrificial love; he has gathered us together as his holy people into the Church, the city of truth; and he has poured out his Spirit upon as as the first fruits of glory. That should be enough. Yet it is not enough for God.

“He has given his angels charge over you to guard you in all your ways” (Ps 91:11).

Today we celebrate the Feast of Sts. Michael, Gabriel and Raphael: Archangels. Sent from the hands of God, these powerful messengers bring promises of love and of hope. When the angel Gabriel appeared to the Virgin Mary, she was “greatly troubled” by his greeting. The angel Gabriel said, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God” (Lk 1:30).

Gabriel’s words are for each and every one of us; they should resonate in the depths of our hearts: “Do not be afraid!” For God has gone to every end in order to communicate his life to us, draw us to himself, protect and nourish us into spiritual maturity, that we may live forever in the embrace of his superabundant, burning love as members of the divine family.

Given the numerous present dangers, the division and strife, the blatant perpetration of intrinsic moral evils which surround us, and the decline of American culture, we can be tempted to fall into despair. Yet there is no need to fear! Now is a time for that boldness, courage and hope that springs forth from God’s fiery love. Let us remember: we are not alone. In order to guide and protect us on our often perilous journey, God has given each of us a guardian angel, a spiritual being whose power of intellect and will far exceeds that of any man, for the sake of seeing us to our predestined end of perfect happiness.

The Catechism explains: “From infancy to death human life is surrounded by [the guardian angels’] watchful care and intercession. Beside each believer stands an angel as protector and shepherd leading him to life. Already here on earth the Christian life shares by faith in the blessed company of angels and men united in God” (336).

“These words should fill you with respect, inspire devotion and instill confidence;” wrote St. Bernard, “respect for the presence of angels, devotion because of their loving service, and confidence because of their protection. And so the angels are here; they are at your side, they are with you, present on your behalf. They are here to protect you and to serve you. But even if it is God who has given them this charge, we must nonetheless be grateful to them for the great love with which they obey and come to help us in our great need.”

Who Are The Archangels?

St. Augustine wrote: “‘Angel’ is the name of their office, not of their nature. If you seek the name of their nature, it is ‘spirit’; if you seek the name of their office, it is ‘angel’: from what they are, ‘spirit,’ from what they do, ‘angel.'”

The name Michael means “Who is like God.” The Archangel Michael’s will is focused, immovable, and entirely driven toward accomplishing goodness; he is the protector of souls, and wields his powerful sword of truth and love against the poisonous and vindictive aspirations of the Father of Lies.

Blessed John Paul II said during a visit to the Sanctuary of Saint Michael the Archangel, “The battle against the devil . . . is the principal task of Saint Michael the archangel.”

Scripture affirms the same: “Then war broke out in heaven; Michael and his angels battled against the dragon. Although the dragon and his angels fought back, they were overpowered and lost their place in heaven. The huge dragon, the ancient serpent known as the devil or Satan, the seducer of the whole world, was driven out; he was hurled down to earth and his minions with him” (Rev 12:7-9).

Gabriel means “God is my strength.” He was sent from God to Nazareth, “to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph, . . . and the virgin’s name was Mary. And coming to her, he said, ‘Hail, favored one! The Lord is with you'” (Lk 1:27-28). Pope St. Gregory the Great wrote: “[Gabriel] came to announce the One who appeared as a humble man to quell the cosmic powers. Thus God’s strength announced the coming of the Lord of the heavenly powers, mighty in battle” (excerpt from Hom. 34, 8-9).

Raphael means “God is my health.” …

 

 

 

BSNL Tips

  • To Activate STV300 from SIM with Sufficient Balance SMS “STV300” to “53733”

  • For Free missed call alerts from BSNL Just dial  *62*+9117010#

  • To Port a number to other Network Send “PORT number” to 1900 and follow the instructions thereafter

    BSNL News

    India’s National telecom Backbone and GSM service provider Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) introduces CREDIT Recharge, GIFT the Talk Time, SMS based tariff Recharging and Plan Migration facility for its GSM Mobile service customers in Kolkata Telecom Circles

    The Credit Recharge facility which let its prepaid customers in Kolkata telecom circle to avail a credit amount of Rs.10 as a Emergency Credit Recharge by just sending an SMS.

    To avail the service any prepaid customer having balance less than 10 but not negative need to send CREDIT to 53738. The credit Amount of Rs. 10 will be added to his account instantly. However the same feature will not be allowed again to the customer till he recharges. A sum of Rs.10 will be debited from his balance on the next day midnight. If the customer does not recharge within next day, the balance will go to negative. The transaction Fee Rs.1 will be applicable.

    Gift or Share the Talk Time

    BSNL prepaid subscriber can Gift or Share their talk time with other active BSNL prepaid subscribers (same circle). To gift the talk time customer may send GIFT (space) (prepaid no. to whom gift to be made) (space) Amount to 53738. The Transferee should be in the active period and Maximum talk value for gifting is Rs. 100 per transaction. One transaction will be allowed per day. The transaction Fee Rs.1 will be applicable.

    Plan Information.

    BSNL Kolkata also launches SMS Based recharge and Plan information’s for example if BSNL prepaid subscriber willing to know his existing tariff plan than he can get the info just by one SMS MY PLAN or MYPLAN to 53738. This SMS will be toll free.

    Plan Migration

    While with the SMS based recharge faculty, customer who has enough balance in their account can change their tariff plan or recharge with desired STV or RCV without going Retailer or BSNL outlets to get mobile recharged.

    This service allows Extension of validity, Migration to new Plans, Magic/Power facility For Example if customer wants to recharge with GPRS Plan 98 which offer 2GB free downloads can recharged just by one simple SMS STV98 to 53738 (Toll Free). After sending the SMS Balance will reduced by Rs.98 and GPRS Plan will be activated. To use this service prepaid account Balance should be more than the MRP of desired STV.

    Note-: BSNL’s “SMS Based Recharge Facility” over short code 53738 also available in Bihar and some other telecom circle but the Key word will be different as per tariff plans of respective telecom circle.

    BSNL launches third party recharge

    Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Coimbatore, has announced the launch of the facility “Third party recharge/top up” for prepaid cellular customers.

    A release from the BSNL said that, anyone who wishes to recharge/top up the 9443 or 9442 level prepaid numbers have to follow the procedure. Dial 94430 00123/94420 00123 respective from the landline or from BSNL mobile. On getting the Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) prompt, pleas enter the prepaid mobile number to whom the recharge/top up to be done 91 followed by mobile number. Then the IVR would repeat the entered mobile number and request to confirm by dialling one or otherwise dial two to change the mobile number (account number) and re-enter.

    After this the IVR would prompt to enter the secret code.

    Then, the IVR would ask to confirm the secret code by dialling O or to re-enter the secret code dial one. On getting the confirmation the recharge/top up would be made with the message that your recharge was successful.

    For details, contact the nearest mobile care centre or 95-422-2454545, 2456006/230660.

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    BSNL introduces Recharge through SMS Facility

    BSNL ,the pan India PSU operator has introduced STV recharge through SMS facility for its 2G & 3G GSM customers. Through this facility customers can recharge special tariff vouchers through an SMS given there is sufficient talktime balance in their account. So far the STV’s are available as physical coupons and C-top up.

     In order to activate any STV (special tariff voucher) ,the customer need to send a prescribed SMS to 53733.  For example if a customer has to activate STV 31 which allows unlimited Local & STD calling on BSNL network then message should be sent like: STV 31 to 53733.

    BSNL STVs are of 4 types viz: General, Unlimited calling STVs, GPRS & Free SMS. The customer can use maximum of 4 STVs simultaneously, i.e. one STV from each category at the same time.

    Other operators like Vodafone, Airtel & Idea too have Recharge through SMS facility, for which they have tied up with banks and money get automatically get deducted from their account in bank on recharge.

     

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BSNL introduces Recharge through SMS Facility

BSNL ,the pan India PSU operator has introduced STV recharge through SMS facility for its 2G & 3G GSM customers. Through this facility customers can recharge special tariff vouchers through an SMS given there is sufficient talktime balance in their account. So far the STV’s are available as physical coupons and C-top up.

Description: http://teleguru.in/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/bsnl-logo.jpg

In order to activate any STV (special tariff voucher) ,the customer need to send a prescribed SMS to 53733.  For example if a customer has to activate STV 31 which allows unlimited Local & STD calling on BSNL network then message should be sent like: STV 31 to 53733.

BSNL STVs are of 4 types viz: General, Unlimited calling STVs, GPRS & Free SMS. The customer can use maximum of 4 STVs simultaneously, i.e. one STV from each category at the same time.

Other operators like Vodafone, Airtel & Idea too have Recharge through SMS facility, for which they have tied up with banks and money get automatically get deducted from their account in bank on recharge.

List of BSNL STVs (Special tariff Vouchers):

Description: http://teleguru.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BSNL-STVs-1.jpgDescription: http://teleguru.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BSNL-STVs-2.jpg

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Tips for Purchasing a Land / സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍

നിങ്ങള്‍ സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങാന്‍ തീരുമാനിച്ചോ…? ഭൂമിയുടെ വില കേരളത്തില്‍ കുതിച്ചുയര്‍ന്നിരിക്കുന്ന ഈ അവസ്ഥയില്‍ നിങ്ങള്‍ സ്വരുകൂട്ടിയ സമ്പാദ്യം മുഴുവന്‍ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ സൂക്ഷ്മത പുലര്‍ത്തിയില്ലെങ്കില്‍ ചതിക്കപ്പെടാന്‍ സാധ്യത കൂടുതലാണ്. പ്രത്യേകിച്ച് നിങ്ങള്‍ക്ക് പരിചയം കുറഞ്ഞ പ്രദേശത്താണ് വാങ്ങുന്നതെങ്കില്‍…!!!

സാധാരണക്കാരായ ഭൂരിഭാഗം ആളുകളും ജീവിതത്തില്‍ ഒന്നോ രണ്ടോ തവണ മാത്രമായിരിക്കും സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുന്നത്. അതും വീട് വെക്കുക എന്ന ഉദ്ദേശത്തില്‍ ആയിരിക്കും. അത് കൊണ്ട് തന്നെ നമ്മുടെ പരിചയ കുറവ് ഇടനിലക്കാരും വില്പനക്കാരും ചൂഷണം ചെയ്യാന്‍ സാധ്യത വളരെ കൂടുതലാണ്. എന്തായാലും നിക്ഷേപം എന്ന നിലയ്ക്കോ അല്ലാതെയോ സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ ചില കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുന്നത് നല്ലതാണ്.

1. റിയല്‍ എസ്റ്റേറ്റ്‌ ഏജെന്റ്റ് മാര്‍ വഴിയല്ലാതെ സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുക എന്നുള്ളത് ഇപ്പോള്‍ വളരെ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടാണ്. ഇവര്‍ക്ക് വില്പനവിലയുടെ ശതമാനമാണ് കമ്മീഷന്‍ എന്നുള്ളത് കൊണ്ട് വില കൂട്ടിയായിരിക്കും നമ്മളെ അറിയിക്കുക. അത് കൊണ്ട് തന്നെ സ്ഥലം കണ്ടു കഴിഞ്ഞാല്‍ വില ഉടമസ്ഥനുമായി നേരിട്ട് സംസാരിച്ചു തീരുമാനിക്കാം എന്ന് ബ്രോക്കറെ ബോധ്യപ്പെടുത്തുക. ഏജെന്റുമായി വിലപേശല്‍ നടത്താതിരിക്കുക. ഉടമസ്ഥന്‍ സ്ഥലത്തില്ലെങ്കില്‍ ഫോണ്‍ നമ്പര്‍ വാങ്ങുക.

2. ഗ്രാമങ്ങള്‍ ഒഴികെ മിക്ക സ്ഥലങ്ങളിലും സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുന്ന ആള്‍ ബ്രോക്കര്‍ കമ്മിഷന്‍ കൊടുക്കേണ്ട ആവശ്യമില്ല. അങ്ങനെ കൊടുക്കുന്ന സ്ഥലമാണെങ്കില്‍ എത്ര രൂപയാണ് അയാളുടെ കമ്മീഷന്‍ എന്നോ അല്ലെങ്കില്‍ വിലയുടെ എത്ര ശതമാനമാണ് കമ്മീഷന്‍ എന്നോ ആദ്യം തന്നെ പറഞ്ഞു ഉറപ്പിക്കുക. പലപ്പോഴും വാങ്ങുന്ന ആളോട് ചായക്കാശു മതി എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞു അവസാനം അമേരിക്കയില്‍ പോയി ചായ കുടിച്ചു വരാനുള്ള തുകയായിരിക്കും അവര്‍ ആവശ്യപ്പെടുക.

3. ആദ്യം തന്നെ സ്ഥലം കുടുംബാന്ഗങ്ങള്‍, അടുത്ത സുഹൃത്തുക്കള്‍ എന്നിവരുമായി സന്ദര്‍ശിക്കുക. സ്ഥലം ഇഷ്ടപ്പെട്ടെങ്കില്‍ സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെ അതിരിലുള്ള അയല്‍ക്കാരുമായി കുശലം പറയാന്‍ മടിക്കരുത്. അതിര്‍ത്തി പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍, ഏകദേശ വില , സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെയും പരിസരതിന്റെയും മറ്റെന്തെങ്കിലും പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍, ജലത്തിന്റെ ലഭ്യത, അയല്‍ക്കാരുടെ സ്വഭാവം , എന്ത് കൊണ്ടാണ് ഉടമസ്ഥന്‍ സ്ഥലം വില്‍ക്കുന്നത് എന്നീ കാര്യങ്ങളില്‍ ഒരു പരിധി വരെ ഒരു അറിവ് ലഭിക്കുന്നതിനു ഇത് ഉപകരിക്കും. ഇവരുമായി സംസാരിക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ബ്രോക്കറുടെ സാന്നിധ്യം ഒഴിവാക്കുകയാണ് ഉത്തമം.

4. വീട് ഉള്ള സ്ഥലമാണെങ്കില്‍ വീട് മുഴുവന്‍ നോക്കി പരിശോധിക്കണം. മഴ ഉള്ള സമയത്ത് നോക്കുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ ചോര്ച്ചയോ , വെള്ളക്കെട്ടോ മറ്റോ ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ മനസിലാക്കാം.

5. വസ്‌തു വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ അത്‌ വില്ക്കുന്നയാളിന്‌ ആ ഭൂമിയില്‍ യഥാര്ത്ഥ ഉടമസ്ഥാവകാശം ഉണ്ടെന്ന്‌ ഉറപ്പാക്കണം. സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെ ആധാരം, ലഭ്യമായ മുന്നാധാരങ്ങള്‍ , പട്ടയം, പോകുവരവ് രശീത് , കുടിക്കട സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ്, കൈവശാവകാശ സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ് എന്നിവയുടെ കോപ്പികള്‍ ഉടമസ്ഥനില്‍ നിന്നോ ബ്രോക്കര്‍ വഴിയോ വാങ്ങണം. ഇവ ഒരു ആധാരം എഴുത്ത് കാരനെ കൊണ്ടോ വക്കീലിനെ കൊണ്ടോ പരിശോധിപ്പിച്ചു കുഴപ്പം ഒന്നും ഇല്ല എന്ന് ഉറപ്പു വരുത്തണം. എന്തെങ്കിലും സംശയം ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ ബന്ധപെട്ട സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും കാര്യങ്ങള്‍ നമ്മുക്ക് നേരിട്ട് വെരിഫൈ ചെയ്യാവുന്നതാണ്. ഉദാഹരണത്തിന് ആധാരം, no encumbrance സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ് എന്നിവ സബ് രെജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും, പോക്കുവരവ് ( ഭൂനികുതി അടച്ചത് ) വില്ലേജ് ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും, പട്ടയം സംബന്ധിച്ച് ലാന്‍ഡ്‌ ട്രിബ്യൂണല്‍ ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും സംശയ നിവൃത്തി വരുത്തുകയോ കൂടുതല്‍ രേഖകള്‍ പരിശോധിക്കുകയോ ചെയ്യാം.

6. Encumbrance (കുടിക്കട ) സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ് ഈ ഭൂമിയുടെ പേരില്‍ എന്തെങ്കിലും വായ്പയോ മറ്റു നിയമപരമായ ബാധ്യതകളോ ഉണ്ടോ എന്നും ഈ വസ്തുവില്‍ എന്തെല്ലാം transaction നടന്നു എന്നും രേഖപ്പെടുത്തിയിരിക്കും. സാധാരണ 13 വര്‍ഷത്തെ വിവരങ്ങളാണ് ഇതില്‍ ഉണ്ടാവുക എങ്കിലും വേണമെങ്കില്‍ നമുക്ക് കഴിഞ്ഞ 30 വര്ഷം വരെയുള്ള ബാധ്യതാ സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ് വാങ്ങാവുന്നതാണ്.

7. വില്ലേജ് ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും ലൊക്കേഷന്‍ സ്കെച്, പ്ലാന്‍ എന്നിവ വാങ്ങി ഇത് വില്‍ക്കുന്ന ആള്‍ക്ക് കൈവശം ഉള്ള സ്ഥലമാണോ എന്നും പുറമ്പോക്ക് ഒന്നും ഉള്‍പെട്ടിട്ടില്ല എന്നും ഉറപ്പാക്കാവുന്നതാണ്.

8. കോടതി വ്യവഹാരങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടായിരുന്ന വസ്തുവാണെങ്കില്‍ അതിന്റെ വിവരങ്ങള്‍ കോടതിവിധിയുടെ വിശദാംശങ്ങള്‍ എന്നിവ പരിശോധിക്കുക.ഇക്കാര്യത്തില്‍ ഒരു അഭിഭാഷകന്റെ ഉപദേശം തേടുന്നത്‌ നന്നായിരിക്കും.കൂട്ടുകുടുമ്പ സ്വത്തില്‍ നിന്നും സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുമ്പോഴും വളരെയധികം ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുക.

9. പിന്തുടര്‍ച്ച അവകാശമായി ലഭിച്ച ഭൂമി വങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ പിന്തുടര്‍ച്ച അവകാശ സര്‍ട്ടിഫിക്കറ്റ് കൂടി വാങ്ങണം. വസ്തു പണയപ്പെടുത്തി ലോണ്‍ എടുക്കാന്‍ ഈ രേഖ കൂടിയേ തീരൂ.

10. വീട് ഉള്ളതാണെങ്കില്‍ അതിന്റെ വസ്തു നികുതി, കറന്റ്‌ ചാര്‍ജ്, വാട്ടര്‍ ചാര്‍ജ് എന്നിവ കുടിശികയില്ലാതെ അടച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടോ എന്ന് നോക്കണം.

11. സ്ഥലം wet ലാന്‍ഡ്‌ (കൃഷിഭൂമി) അല്ല എന്നും data ബാങ്കില്‍ ഉള്പെട്ടതല്ല എന്നും വില്ലേജ് ഓഫീസില്‍ നിന്നും ഉറപ്പാക്കുക. ഇങ്ങനെയുള്ള സ്ഥലങ്ങളില്‍ വീട് വെക്കുന്നത് നിയമവിരുദ്ധമാണ്. വാങ്ങിക്കുന്ന സ്ഥലം, കെട്ടിടം നിര്‍മിക്കാന്‍ സാധിക്കുന്നതാണോയെന്ന് കെട്ടിട നിര്‍മാണ ചട്ട പ്രകാരം രജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ചെയ്ത ലൈസന്‍സികള്‍ മുഖേന ഉറപ്പുവരുതതാവുന്നതാണ്.

12. വസ്തുവിലെ മണ്ണിന്റെ ഉറപ്പ്‌ പരിശോധിച്ച്‌ കെട്ടിടം വെക്കുവാന്‍ അനുയോജ്യമാണോ എന്ന് തീര്‍ച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുക.

13. പ്രസ്തുത സ്ഥലം ടൗണ്‍ പ്ലാനിങ് സ്‌കീമില്‍ ഉള്‍പ്പെട്ടതാണോയെന്ന് ലൊക്കേഷന്‍ പ്ലാന്‍ കാണിച്ച് തദ്ദേശ സ്വയംഭരണ സ്ഥാപനത്തില്‍ നിന്നും അറിയാവുന്നതാണ്. ഇതിന് സ്ഥലം ഉള്‍പ്പെട്ട വില്ലേജും സര്‍വേ നമ്പരും സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെ ലൊക്കേഷന്‍ പ്ലാനും സഹിതം തദ്ദേശ സ്വയംഭരണം സ്ഥാപനത്തെ ബന്ധപ്പെടാവുന്നതാണ്. അത് പോലെ ഗ്രീന്‍ ബെല്‍റ്റ്‌ ആയി പ്രഖ്യാപിച്ച സ്ഥലമാണെങ്കില്‍ കെട്ടിട നിര്‍മ്മാണം സാധിക്കില്ല.

14. അംഗീകൃത പദ്ധതികള്‍ പ്രകാരം, റോഡ് വീതി കൂട്ടുന്നതിന് പ്ലോട്ടില്‍ നിന്നും സ്ഥലം വിടേണ്ടതുണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ അതിനു ശേഷം ബാക്കിവരുന്ന പ്ലോട്ടില്‍ മാത്രമേ നിര്‍മാണം നടത്താന്‍ സാധിക്കുകയുള്ളൂ. ഇതു സംബന്ധമായ വിവരം തദ്ദേശ സ്വയംഭരണ സ്ഥാപനത്തില്‍ നിന്നോ ജില്ലാ ടൗണ്‍ പ്ലാനറില്‍ നിന്നോ അറിയാവുന്നതാണ്.

15. സംരക്ഷിത സ്മാരകങ്ങള്‍, തീരദേശ പ്രദേശങ്ങള്‍ തുടങ്ങിയവക്ക് ബാധകമാക്കിയിരിക്കുന്ന നിയന്ത്രണങ്ങള്‍ എന്തെങ്കിലും പ്രസ്തുത സ്ഥലത്ത് ബാധകമാണോ എന്ന് പരിശോധിക്കേണ്ടതാണ്. ഇക്കാര്യം തദ്ദേശ സ്വയംഭരണ സ്ഥാപനത്തില്‍ നിന്നോ ശാസ്ത്ര സാങ്കേതിക – പരിസ്ഥിതി വകുപ്പില്‍ നിന്നോ അറിയാവുന്നതാണ്.

16. ഹൈ ടെന്‍ഷന്‍ വൈദ്യുതി ലൈനുകള്‍ക്ക് സമീപമുള്ള പ്ലോട്ടുകള്‍ കഴിവതും ഒഴിവാക്കുക.

17. പ്ലോട്ട്‌ തിരിച്ചു വില്‍പന നടത്തുന്നവരുടെ പക്കല്‍ നിന്നും ഭൂമി വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ അവയ്ക്ക് ജില്ലാ ടൗണ്‍ പ്ലാനറുടെയോ ചീഫ് ടൗണ്‍ പ്ലാനറുടെയോ ലേ ഔട്ട് അംഗീകാരം ഉണ്ടോയെന്ന് ഉറപ്പ് വരുത്തേണ്ടതാണ്. അമ്പതു സെന്റിനു മുകളില്‍ ഒരേ സര്‍വ്വേ നമ്പരിലുള്ള ഭൂമി മുറിച്ച്‌ വില്‍ക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ടൌണ്‍ പ്ലാനിംഗ്‌ ഡിപ്പാര്‍ട്ട്മെന്റിന്റെ പ്രത്യേക അനുമതി ആവശ്യമാണ്‌. ലേ ഔട്ട് അംഗീകാരം ലഭ്യമായ പ്ലോട്ടുകള്‍ മാത്രം വാങ്ങുക.

18. സ്ഥലത്തേക്ക്‌ സ്വകാര്യ വഴിയുണ്ടെങ്കിലത്‌ ആധാരത്തില്‍ കാണിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടോ എന്ന് പ്രത്യേകം ശ്രദ്ധിക്കുക. വഴി വേറെ സ്ഥലത്ത് കൂടി ആണെങ്കില്‍ ആ സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെ ഉടമസ്ഥനുമായി ചര്‍ച്ച ചെയ്തു വഴി തുടര്‍ന്നും ലഭിക്കും എന്ന് ഉറപ്പു വരുത്തുക. അതുപോലെ തന്നെ നിങ്ങള്‍ വാങ്ങുന്ന സ്ഥലത്തിലൂടെ മറ്റുള്ളവര്‍ക്ക്‌ വഴി അനുവദിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടോ എന്നും പരിശോധിക്കുക.

19. ഏകദേശം എല്ലാ കാര്യങ്ങളും തൃപ്തികരമാണ് എങ്കില്‍ മാത്രം വിലയെ കുറിച്ച് സംസാരിക്കുക. വസ്തുവിന്റെ സമീപ പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലെ വിലയെ കുറിച്ച് ഒരു അന്വേഷണം നടത്തുക. വിലപേശല്‍ ഉടമസ്ഥനുമായി നേരിട്ട് നടത്തുക. വളരെ വില കുറച്ചു ഒരു വസ്തു ഓഫര്‍ ചെയ്യുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ എന്തെങ്കിലും പ്രശ്നങ്ങള്‍ ഉണ്ടോ എന്ന് സൂക്ഷ്മമായി പരിശോധിക്കേണ്ടിയിരിക്കുന്നു.

20. വില തീരുമാനിച്ചു കഴിഞ്ഞാല്‍ അഡ്വാന്‍സ്‌ തുക കൊടുക്കുന്ന ദിവസം ഉടമസ്ഥനുമായി എഗ്രിമെന്റ് ഉണ്ടാക്കുക. 50 രൂപ പത്രത്തിലാണ് എഗ്രിമെന്റ് എഴുതുക. കൊടുക്കുന്ന അഡ്വാന്‍സ്‌, മൊത്ത വില, മറ്റു കണ്ടിഷന്‍സ്, ആധാരം രജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ചെയ്യുന്ന തിയതി ഇവയെല്ലാം എഗ്രിമെന്റില്‍ ഉണ്ടായിരിക്കണം. എഗ്രിമെന്റ് എഴുതുന്ന സമയം എല്ലാ രേഖകളുടെയും ഒറിജിനല്‍ പരിശോധിച്ച് കുഴപ്പമില്ല എന്ന് ഉറപ്പാക്കണം. അല്‍പ്പം ചിലവു വരുമെങ്കിലും എഗ്രിമെന്റ് രേജിസ്റെര്‍ ചെയ്യുന്നതാണ് നല്ലത്.

21. ഏതെങ്കിലും കാരണവശാല്‍ എഗ്രിമന്റ്‌ സമയത്തിനുള്ളില്‍ വില്‍ക്കുന്ന ആള്‍ക്കോ വാങ്ങുന്ന ആള്‍ക്കോ ആധാരം റെജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ചെയ്യുവാന്‍ കഴിയാതെ വരികയാണെങ്കില്‍ അക്കാര്യം ഇരുകക്ഷികളും ഒപ്പിട്ട ഒരു എഗ്രിമെന്റുണ്ടാക്കുകയോ പുതിയ ഒരെണ്ണം ഉണ്ടാക്കുകയോ വേണം.എഗ്രിമെന്റില്‍ നിന്നും വില്‍ക്കുന്ന ആള്‍ നല്‍കിയ അഡ്വാന്‍സ്‌ തിരികെതരാതെ പിന്‍ വാങ്ങാന്‍ ശ്രമിക്കുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ കോടതിയെ സമീപിക്കാവുന്നതാണ്‌.

22. സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങുന്നതിന് മുന്‍പ് വസ്തു അളന്നു അതിരുകള്‍ കൃത്യമായി മനസ്സിലാക്കണം. ലൈസെന്‍സ് ഉള്ള സര്‍വെയരെ ഇതിനായി വിളിക്കാം. അളക്കുന്നത് നിലവിലെ ഉടമയുടെ സാന്നിധ്യത്തില്‍ ആവണം . അടുത്തുള്ള ഭൂമിയുടെ ഉടമസ്ഥരെ നിങ്ങള്‍ വാങ്ങാനുദ്ധേശിക്കുന്ന വസ്തു അളക്കുന്നതിനു മുമ്പ്‌ അറിയിക്കുക. അതിര്‍ത്തികള്‍ വ്യക്തമാകുന്ന രീതിയില്‍ കാലുകള്‍ നാട്ടുന്നത് നല്ലതാണ്‌.

23. വലിയ തുകക്കുള്ള വസ്തു ആണെങ്കില്‍ വാങ്ങുന്നതിനു മുമ്പ് ഒരു പത്ര പരസ്യം ചെയ്യുന്നത് ഉത്തമമാണ്. ഇന്ന സ്ഥലം ഞാന്‍ വാങ്ങുന്നതില്‍ ആര്‍ക്കെങ്കിലും ആക്ഷേപം ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ അറിയിക്കണം എന്നതായിരിക്കണം പരസ്യം.

24. സ്ഥലത്തിന്റെ ഉടമ വിദേശത്ത് ആണെങ്കില്‍ അദ്ദേഹം പവര്‍ ഓഫ് അറ്റോര്‍ണി (മുക്ത്യാര്‍ ) നല്‍കിയ ആളില്‍ നിന്നെ ഭൂമി വാങ്ങാവൂ.

25. വാങ്ങാനുദ്ദേശിക്കുന്ന ഭൂമിയുടെ ഉടമ ഒരു പട്ടികവര്ഗകക്കാരനാണെങ്കില്‍ ഭൂമി വാങ്ങുന്നതിനുമുമ്പ്‌ നിര്ബ്ന്ധമായും ജില്ലാ കളക്‌റ്ററുടെ അനുമതി വാങ്ങണം.

26. ആധാരം റെജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ചെയ്യുന്നതിനു മുമ്പെ പ്രസ്തുത സ്ഥലത്ത്‌ നിര്‍മ്മാണപ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ നടത്തതിരിക്കുന്നതാണ്‌ നല്ലത്‌.

27. വസ്തു വാങ്ങുന്ന ആളാണ്‌ രേജിസ്ട്രഷന് മുദ്ര പത്രം വങ്ങേണ്ടത്. ആധാരത്തിനു വിലകുറച്ച്‌ കാണിച്ച്‌ മുദ്രപത്രത്തിന്റെ ചെലവുകുറക്കുന്നത്‌ നല്ലതല്ല.

28. എഗ്രിമെന്റ് കാലാവധിക്ക് മുമ്പ് തന്നെ ലൈസന്‍സുള്ള വിശ്വസ്തനായ ഒരു ആധാരമെഴുത്തു കാരനെക്കൊണ്ട് ആധാരം തയ്യാറാക്കണം. അസ്സല്‍ എഴുതും മുന്‍പ് ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ്‌ വായിച്ചു നോക്കണം. അടുത്തുള്ള വസ്തു ഉടമകളുടെ പേര്, അളവുകള്‍ എല്ലാം കൃത്യം ആയിരിക്കണം. ആധാരം എഴുതുന്ന ആള്‍ക്ക് സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ നിശ്ചയിച്ച ഫീസ്‌ മാത്രമേ കൊടുക്കാവൂ. സബ് രെജിസ്ട്രി ഓഫീസില്‍ കൈകൂലി കൊടുക്കാന്‍ എന്ന പേരില്‍ അധികം തുക കൊടുക്കുന്നത് കൊണ്ട് യാതൊരു പ്രയോജനവും ഇല്ല. സര്‍ക്കാര്‍ നിശ്ചയിച്ച ന്യായ വിലയില്‍ രജിസ്റ്റര്‍ ചെയ്യുന്ന ഒരു ആധാരവും മതിയായ തുകയ്ക്കുള്ള മുദ്രപത്രം ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ രജിസ്ട്രാര്‍ക്ക് തളളാന്‍ അധികാരമില്ല. ആധാരം എഴുത്തുകാരന് കൊടുക്കുന്ന ഫീസിനു രശീത്‌ വാങ്ങുക.

29. ഉടമസ്ഥന്‍ പറഞ്ഞ സമയത്ത്‌ പ്രമാണം എഴുതി തരുന്നില്ലാ എങ്കില്‍, എഗ്രിമെന്റ് കാലാവധി തീരുന്ന ദിവസം നിങ്ങള്‍ ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട സബ് രജിസ്ട്രാര്‍ ആഫീസില്‍ പോയി രേജിസ്ട്രരെ നേരില്‍ കണ്ടു എഗ്രിമെന്റ് കാണിച്ചു താന്‍ ഹാജരായ വിവരം രേഖപ്പെടുത്താന്‍ ആവശ്യപ്പെടണം. അന്നേ ദിവസത്തെ ഏതെങ്കിലും ഒന്ന് രണ്ട് ആധാരങ്ങളില്‍ സാക്ഷി ആയി നില്‍ക്കുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ നന്ന്. തുടര്‍ന്ന് കരാര്‍ ലങ്ഘിച്ച ഉടമസ്ഥനോട് വസ്തു എഴുതി തരാന്‍ ആവശ്യപ്പെട്ട് വക്കീല്‍ നോട്ടീസ് അയക്കണം. ഏതെങ്കിലും കാരണവശാല്‍ അയാള്‍ പ്രമാണം എഴുതി തരുന്നില്ലാ എങ്കില്‍ കോടതി മുഖേനെ വസ്തുഎഴുതി കിട്ടാന്‍ അന്യായം ഫയല്‍ ചെയണം.

30. രെജിസ്ട്രേഷന്‍ സമയത്ത് അസല്‍ ആധാരം, വസ്തുവിന്റെയും വീടിന്റെയും കരമടച്ച രസീത്, വാങ്ങുന്നവരുടെയും വില്‍ക്കുന്നവരുടെയും ഫോട്ടോ, തിരിച്ചറിയല്‍ രേഖകള്‍ എന്നിവ വേണം. വസ്തുവിന്റെ മുന്നധാരം ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ നന്ന്. വില്‍ക്കുന്ന ആളെ അറിയാമെന്നു സാകഷ്യപ്പെടുത്തിക്കൊണ്ട് രണ്ടു സാക്ഷികളും ഒപ്പിടണം. അഞ്ചു ലക്ഷം രൂപയില്‍ കൂടുതല്‍ വിലയുള്ള വസ്തു വാങ്ങുമ്പോള്‍ പാന്‍ കാര്‍ഡിന്റെയും തിരിച്ചറിയല്‍ രേഖയുടെയും കോപ്പി സബ് രെജിസ്ട്രാര്‍ ഓഫീസില്‍ നല്‍കണം. വസ്തു വാങ്ങുന്നയാല്‍ വിദേശത്ത് ആണെങ്കില്‍ ആവശ്യമായ സ്ഥലങ്ങളില്‍ വിരലടയാളവും ഒപ്പും ഇട്ടു ആധാരം തപാലില്‍ എത്തിച്ചാല്‍ മതി.

31. രേജിസ്ട്രഷന് ശേഷം മാത്രമേ ബ്രോക്കറുടെ ഫീസ്‌ ഉണ്ടെങ്കില്‍ കൊടുക്കാവൂ. പത്ര പരസ്യം മുഖേനയോ മറ്റോ ഉടമസ്ഥനുമായി നേരിട്ട് ഇടനിലക്കാരില്ലാതെ ഇടപാട് നടത്തിയാലും ചിലപ്പോള്‍ സ്ഥലത്തെ ബ്രോക്കര്‍മാര്‍ കമ്മിഷന്‍ തട്ടാന്‍ വേണ്ടി ഭീഷണിപ്പെടുത്തുന്ന സംഭവങ്ങള്‍ പലയിടത്തും ഉണ്ടായിട്ടുണ്ട്. അത് ഒരിക്കലും വക വെച്ച് കൊടുക്കരുത്. പ്രശ്നം ഉണ്ടാവുകയാണെങ്കില്‍ അടുത്തുള്ള പോലീസ് സ്റ്റേഷനില്‍ പരാതി കൊടുക്കുക.

32. വാങ്ങുന്ന വസ്തുവിലുള്ള അവകാശം പൂര്‍ണമാകണം എങ്കില്‍ ഭൂമി പോക്ക് വരവ് ചെയ്യണം. നികുതി അടച്ചു വില്ലേജ് ഓഫീസ് രേഖകളില്‍ പുതിയ ഉടമയുടെ പേര് ചേര്‍ക്കുന്ന നടപടിയാണ് ഇത്. ആധാരത്തിന്റെ ഒരു കോപ്പി ഇതിനായി വില്ലേജ് ഓഫീസില്‍ നല്‍കണം. രജിസ്ട്രേഷന്‍ ദിവസം തന്നെ രജിസ്ട്രാരുടെ ഒപ്പും ഓഫീസ് സീലും ആധാര നമ്പരും ചേര്‍ത്ത ഒരു കോപ്പി വാങ്ങാം.

 

 

 

Prayer to the Guardian Angel

Prayer to the Guardian Angel

O Holy Angel of God, guardian and protector
of my soul and body, pray that I may be forgiven
for every transgression I have committed this day.

Deliver me from all evil influences and temptations,
so that I may not anger my God by any sin.
Pray for me that the Lord may make me worthy of His grace
and to become partaker of His eternal kingdom. With the help
of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of all the Saints. Amen.

 

 

 

St Therese of Lisieux

St. Therese of Lisieux

Feastday: October 1
Patron of the Missions
1873 – 1897

Generations of Catholics have admired this young saint, called her the “Little Flower“, and found in her short life more inspiration for own lives than in volumes by theologians.

Yet Therese died when she was 24, after having lived as cloistered Carmelite for less than ten years. She never went on missions, never founded a religious order, never performed great works. The only book of hers, published after her death, was an brief edited version of her journal called “Story of a Soul.” (Collections of her letters and restored versions of her journals have been published recently.) But within 28 years of her death, the public demand was so great that she was canonized.

Over the years, some modern Catholics have turned away from her because they associate her with over- sentimentalized piety and yet the message she has for us is still as compelling and simple as it was almost a century ago.

Therese was born in France in 1873, the pampered daughter of a mother who had wanted to be a saint and a father who had wanted to be monk. The two had gotten married but determined they would be celibate until a priest told them that was not how God wanted a marriage to work! They must have followed his advice very well because they had nine children. The five children who lived were all daughters who were close all their lives.

Tragedy and loss came quickly to Therese when her mother died of breast cancer when she was four and a half years old. Her sixteen year old sister Pauline became her second mother — which made the second loss even worse when Pauline entered the Carmelite convent five years later. A few months later, Therese became so ill with a fever that people thought she was dying.

The worst part of it for Therese was all the people sitting around her bed staring at her like, she said, “a string of onions.” When Therese saw her sisters praying to statue of Mary in her room, Therese also prayed. She saw Mary smile at her and suddenly she was cured. She tried to keep the grace of the cure secret but people found out and badgered her with questions about what Mary was wearing, what she looked like. When she refused to give in to their curiosity, they passed the story that she had made the whole thing up.

Without realizing it, by the time she was eleven years old she had developed the habit of mental prayer. She would find a place between her bed and the wall and in that solitude think about God, life, eternity.

When her other sisters, Marie and Leonie, left to join religious orders (the Carmelites and Poor Clares, respectively), Therese was left alone with her last sister Celine and her father. Therese tells us that she wanted to be good but that she had an odd way of going about. This spoiled little Queen of her father’s wouldn’t do housework. She thought if she made the beds she was doing a great favor!

Every time Therese even imagined that someone was criticizing her or didn’t appreciate her, she burst into tears. Then she would cry because she had cried! Any inner wall she built to contain her wild emotions crumpled immediately before the tiniest comment.

Therese wanted to enter the Carmelite convent to join Pauline and Marie but how could she convince others that she could handle the rigors of Carmelite life, if she couldn’t handle her own emotional outbursts? She had prayed that Jesus would help her but there was no sign of an answer.

On Christmas day in 1886, the fourteen-year-old hurried home from church. In France, young children left their shoes by the hearth at Christmas, and then parents would fill them with gifts. By fourteen, most children outgrew this custom. But her sister Celine didn’t want Therese to grow up. So they continued to leave presents in “baby” Therese’s shoes.

As she and Celine climbed the stairs to take off their hats, their father’s voice rose up from the parlor below. Standing over the shoes, he sighed, “Thank goodness that’s the last time we shall have this kind of thing!”

Therese froze, and her sister looked at her helplessly. Celine knew that in a few minutes Therese would be in tears over what her father had said.

But the tantrum never came. Something incredible had happened to Therese. Jesus had come into her heart and done what she could not do herself. He had made her more sensitive to her father’s feelings than her own.

She swallowed her tears, walked slowly down the stairs, and exclaimed over the gifts in the shoes, as if she had never heard a word her father said. The following year she entered the convent. In her autobiography she referred to this Christmas as her “conversion.”

Therese be known as the Little Flower but she had a will of steel. When the superior of the Carmelite convent refused to take Therese because she was so young, the formerly shy little girl went to the bishop. When the bishop also said no, she decided to go over his head, as well.

Her father and sister took her on a pilgrimage to Rome to try to get her mind off this crazy idea. Therese loved it. It was the one time when being little worked to her advantage! Because she was young and small she could run everywhere, touch relics and tombs without being yelled at. Finally they went for an audience with the Pope. They had been forbidden to speak to him but that didn’t stop Therese. As soon as she got near him, she begged that he let her enter the Carmelite convent. She had to be carried out by two of the guards!

But the Vicar General who had seen her courage was impressed and soon Therese was admitted to the Carmelite convent that her sisters Pauline and Marie had already joined. Her romantic ideas of convent life and suffering soon met up with reality in a way she had never expected. Her father suffered a series of strokes that left him affected not only physically but mentally. When he began hallucinating and grabbed for a gun as if going into battle, he was taken to an asylum for the insane. Horrified, Therese learned of the humiliation of the father she adored and admired and of the gossip and pity of their so-called friends. As a cloistered nun she couldn’t even visit her father.

This began a horrible time of suffering when she experienced such dryness in prayer that she stated “Jesus isn’t doing much to keep the conversation going.” She was so grief-stricken that she often fell asleep in prayer. She consoled herself by saying that mothers loved children when they lie asleep in their arms so that God must love her when she slept during prayer.

She knew as a Carmelite nun she would never be able to perform great deeds. ” Love proves itself by deeds, so how am I to show my love? Great deeds are forbidden me. The only way I can prove my love is by scattering flowers and these flowers are every little sacrifice, every glance and word, and the doing of the least actions for love.” She took every chance to sacrifice, no matter how small it would seem. She smiled at the sisters she didn’t like. She ate everything she was given without complaining — so that she was often given the worst leftovers. One time she was accused of breaking a vase when she was not at fault. Instead of arguing she sank to her knees and begged forgiveness. These little sacrifices cost her more than bigger ones, for these went unrecognized by others. No one told her how wonderful she was for these little secret humiliations and good deeds.

When Pauline was elected prioress, she asked Therese for the ultimate sacrifice. Because of politics in the convent, many of the sisters feared that the family Martin would taken over the convent. Therefore Pauline asked Therese to remain a novice, in order to allay the fears of the others that the three sisters would push everyone else around. This meant she would never be a fully professed nun, that she would always have to ask permission for everything she did. This sacrifice was made a little sweeter when Celine entered the convent after her father’s death. Four of the sisters were now together again.

Therese continued to worry about how she could achieve holiness in the life she led. She didn’t want to just be good, she wanted to be a saint. She thought there must be a way for people living hidden, little lives like hers. ” I have always wanted to become a saint. Unfortunately when I have compared myself with the saints, I have always found that there is the same difference between the saints and me as there is between a mountain whose summit is lost in the clouds and a humble grain of sand trodden underfoot by passers-by. Instead of being discouraged, I told myself: God would not make me wish for something impossible and so, in spite of my littleness, I can aim at being a saint. It is impossible for me to grow bigger, so I put up with myself as I am, with all my countless faults. But I will look for some means of going to heaven by a little way which is very short and very straight, a little way that is quite new.

” We live in an age of inventions. We need no longer climb laboriously up flights of stairs; in well-to-do houses there are lifts. And I was determined to find a lift to carry me to Jesus, for I was far too small to climb the steep stairs of perfection. So I sought in holy Scripture some idea of what this life I wanted would be, and I read these words: “Whosoever is a little one, come to me.” It is your arms, Jesus, that are the lift to carry me to heaven. And so there is no need for me to grow up: I must stay little and become less and less.”

She worried about her vocation: ” I feel in me the vocation of the Priest. I have the vocation of the Apostle. Martyrdom was the dream of my youth and this dream has grown with me. Considering the mystical body of the Church, I desired to see myself in them all. Charity gave me the key to my vocation. I understood that the Church had a Heart and that this Heart was burning with love. I understood that Love comprised all vocations, that Love was everything, that it embraced all times and places…in a word, that it was eternal! Then in the excess of my delirious joy, I cried out: O Jesus, my Love…my vocation, at last I have found it…My vocation is Love!”

When an antagonist was elected prioress, new political suspicions and plottings sprang up. The concern over the Martin sisters perhaps was not exaggerated. In this small convent they now made up one-fifth of the population. Despite this and the fact that Therese was a permanent novice they put her in charge of the other novices.

Then in 1896, she coughed up blood. She kept working without telling anyone until she became so sick a year later everyone knew it. Worst of all she had lost her joy and confidence and felt she would die young without leaving anything behind. Pauline had already had her writing down her memories for journal and now she wanted her to continue — so they would have something to circulate on her life after her death.

Her pain was so great that she said that if she had not had faith she would have taken her own life without hesitation. But she tried to remain smiling and cheerful — and succeeded so well that some thought she was only pretending to be ill. Her one dream as the work she would do after her death, helping those on earth. “I will return,” she said. “My heaven will be spent on earth.” She died on September 30, 1897 at the age of 24 years old. She herself felt it was a blessing God allowed her to die at exactly that age. she had always felt that she had a vocation to be a priest and felt God let her die at the age she would have been ordained if she had been a man so that she wouldn’t have to suffer.

After she died, everything at the convent went back to normal. One nun commented that there was nothing to say about Therese. But Pauline put together Therese’s writings (and heavily edited them, unfortunately) and sent 2000 copies to other convents. But Therese’s “little way” of trusting in Jesus to make her holy and relying on small daily sacrifices instead of great deeds appealed to the thousands of Catholics and others who were trying to find holiness in ordinary lives. Within two years, the Martin family had to move because her notoriety was so great and by 1925 she had been canonized.

Therese of Lisieux is one of the patron saints of the missions, not because she ever went anywhere, but because of her special love of the missions, and the prayers and letters she gave in support of missionaries. This is reminder to all of us who feel we can do nothing, that it is the little things that keep God’s kingdom growing.

from Wikipedia

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux (2 January 1873 – 30 September 1897), or Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, born Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin, was a French Carmelite nun. She is also known as “The Little Flower of Jesus”.

She felt an early call to religious life, and overcoming various obstacles, in 1888 at the early age of 15, became a nun and joined two of her elder sisters in the cloistered Carmelite community of Lisieux, Normandy. After nine years as a Carmelite religious, having fulfilled various offices such as sacristan and assistant to the novice mistress, and having spent the last eighteen months in Carmel in a night of faith, she died of tuberculosis at the age of 24.

The impact of The Story of a Soul, a collection of her autobiographical manuscripts, printed and distributed a year after her death to an initially very limited audience, was great, and she rapidly became one of the most popular saints of the twentieth century. Pope Pius XI made her the “star of his pontificate”.[1] She was beatified in 1923, and canonized in 1925. Thérèse was declared co-patron of the missions with Francis Xavier in 1927, and named co-patron of France with Joan of Arc in 1944. On 19 October 1997 Pope John Paul II declared her the thirty-third Doctor of the Church, the youngest person, and only the third woman, to be so honored. Devotion to Thérèse has developed around the world.[2]

Thérèse lived a hidden life and “wanted to be unknown,” yet became popular after her death through her spiritual autobiography – she left also letters, poems, religious plays, prayers, and her last conversations were recorded by her sisters. Paintings and photographs, mostly the work of her sister Céline, further led to her being recognised by millions of men and women.

The depth of her spirituality, of which she said, “my way is all confidence and love,” has inspired many believers. In the face of her littleness and nothingness, she trusted in God to be her sanctity. She wanted to go to heaven by an entirely new little way. “I wanted to find an elevator that would raise me to Jesus.” The elevator, she wrote, would be the arms of Jesus lifting her in all her littleness. However, according to Guy Gaucher, one of her biographers after her death, “Thérèse fell victim to an excess of sentimental devotion which betrayed her. She was victim also to her language, which was that of the late nineteenth century and flowed from the religiosity of her age.”[3] Thérèse herself said on her death-bed, “I only love simplicity. I have a horror of pretence”, and she spoke out against some of the lives of saints written in her day, “We should not say improbable things, or things we do not know. We must see their real, and not their imagined lives.”[3]

Thérèse is well known throughout the world, with the Basilica of Lisieux being the second largest place of pilgrimage in France after Lourdes.[4]

Life

Family background

Marie-Françoise-Thérèse Martin was born in rue Saint-Blaise, Alençon, France, 2 January 1873, the daughter of Zélie Guérin, a lacemaker, and Louis Martin, a jeweler and watchmaker.[5] Both her parents were devout Catholics. Louis had tried to become a monk, wanting to enter the Augustinian Monastery of the Great St Bernard, but had been refused because he knew no Latin. Zélie, possessed of a strong, active temperament, wished to serve the sick, and had also considered becoming a religious, but the superior of the sisters of the Hôtel-Dieu, Alençon had discouraged her enquiry outright.[6] Disappointed, Zélie learned the trade of lacemaking. She excelled in it and set up her own business on rue Saint-Blaise at age 22.

Zélie Martin, mother of Thérèse. In June 1877 she left for Lourdes hoping to be cured, but the miracle did not happen..The Mother of God has not healed me because my time is up, and because God wills me to repose elsewhere than on the earth

Louis and Zélie met in 1858, and married on July 13, 1858. Both of great piety they were part of the petit-bourgeoisie, comfortable Alençon. At first they decided to live as brother and sister in a perpetual continence, but when a confessor discouraged them in this, they changed their lifestyle and had 9 children. From 1867 to 1870 they lost 3 infants and 5-and-a-half-year-old Hélène. All 5 of their surviving daughters became nuns:

  • Marie (22 February 1860, a Carmelite in Lisieux, in religion, Sister Marie of the Sacred Heart, d. 19 January 1940),
  • Pauline (7 September 1861, in religion, Mother Agnes of Jesus in the Lisieux Carmel, d. 28 July 1951),
  • Léonie (3 June 1863, in religion Sister Françoise-Thérèse, Visitandine at Caen, d. 16 June 1941),
  • Céline (28 April 1869, a Carmelite in Lisieux, in religion, Sister Geneviève of the Holy Face, d. 25 February 1959),
  • and finally Thérèse.

Zélie was so successful in manufacturing lace that by 1870 Louis had sold his watchmaking shop to a nephew and handled the traveling and bookkeeping end of her lacemaking business.

Birth and survival

Louis Martin, father of Thérèse. ” He was a dreamer and brooder, an idealist and romantic…To his daughters he gave touching and naïve pet names: Marie was his diamond, Pauline his noble pearl, Céline the bold one..But Thérèse was his petite reine, little queen, to whom all treasures belonged.”[7]

Soon after her birth in January 1873, the outlook for the survival of Thérèse Martin was very grim. Enteritis, which had already claimed the lives of four of her siblings, threatened Thérèse, and she had to be entrusted to a wet nurse, Rose Taillé, who had already nursed two of the Martin children. Rose had her own children and could not live with the Martins, so Thérèse was sent to live with her in the forests of the Bocage at Semallé. On Holy Thursday April 2, 1874, when she was 15 months old, she returned to Alençon where her family surrounded her with affection. She was educated in a very Catholic environment, including Mass attendance at 5:30 AM, the strict observance of fasts, and prayer to the rhythm of the liturgical year. The Martins also practiced charity, visiting the sick and elderly and welcoming the occasional vagabond to their table. Even if she wasn’t the model little girl her sisters later portrayed, Thérèse was very sensitive to this education. She played at being a nun. One day she went as far as to wish her mother would die; when scolded, she explained that she wanted the happiness of Paradise for her dear mother. Described as generally a happy child,[8] the mother’s humorous letters from this time provide a vivid picture of the baby Thérèse. In a letter to Pauline when Thérèse was three; ” She is intelligent enough, but not nearly so docile as her sister Céline. When she says no nothing can make her change, and she can be terribly obstinate. You could keep her down in the cellar all day without getting a yes out of her; she would rather sleep there.” Mischievous and impish, she gave joy to her family but she was emotional too, and often cried: “Céline is playing with the little one with some bricks… I have to correct poor baby who gets into frightful tantrums when she can’t have her own way. She rolls in the floor in despair believing all is lost. Sometimes she is so overcome she almost chokes. She is a very highly-strung child.” At 22, Thérèse, then a Carmelite, admitted: “I was far from being a perfect little girl.[9]

“I hear the baby calling me Mama! as she goes down the stairs. On every step, she calls out Mama! and if I don’t respond every time, she remains there without going either forward or back.” Madame Martin to Pauline, 21 November 1875

On 28 August 1877, Zélie Martin died of breast cancer, aged 45. From 1865 she had complained of breast pain and in December 1876 a doctor told her of the seriousness of the tumour. Feeling the approach of death Madame Martin had written to Pauline in spring 1877, “You and Marie will have no difficulties with her upbringing. Her disposition is so good. She is a chosen spirit.” Thérèse was barely 4 1/2 years old. Her mother’s death dealt her a severe blow and later she would consider that the first part of her life stopped that day. She wrote: “Every detail of my mother’s illness is still with me, specially her last weeks on earth.” She remembered the bedroom scene where her dying mother received the last sacraments while Thérèse knelt and her father cried. She wrote: “When Mummy died, my happy disposition changed. I had been so lively and open; now I became diffident and oversensitive, crying if anyone looked at me. I was only happy if no one took notice of me… It was only in the intimacy of my own family, where everyone was wonderfully kind, that I could be more myself.”[10][11]

Three months after Zélie died, Louis Martin left Alençon, where he had spent his youth and marriage, and moved to Lisieux in the Calvados Department of Normandy, where Zélie’s pharmacist brother Isidore Guérin lived with his wife and two daughters. In her last months Zélie had given up the lace business; after her death, Louis sold it. Louis leased a pretty, spacious country house, Les Buissonnets, situated in a large garden on the slope of a hill overlooking the town. Looking back, Thérèse would see the move to Les Buissonnets as the beginning of the “second period of my life, the most painful of the three: it extends from the age of four-and-a-half to fourteen, the time when I rediscovered my childhood character, and entered into the serious side of life.”[12] In Lisieux, Pauline took on the role of Thérèse’s Mama. She took this role seriously, and Thérèse grew especially close to her, and to Céline, the sister closest to her in youth.

Early years

Thérèse discovered the community life of school something for which she was unprepared. She wrote later that the five years of school were the saddest of her life and she found consolation only in the presence at the school of her dear Céline, Céline cherie (photo:Thérèse aged 8, 1881)

Thérèse was taught at home until she was eight and a half, and then entered the school kept by the Benedictine nuns of the Abbey of Notre Dame du Pre in Lisieux. Thérèse, taught well and carefully by Marie and Pauline, found herself at the top of the class, except for writing and arithmetic. However, because of her young age and high grades, she was bullied. The one who bullied her the most was a girl of fourteen who did poorly at school. Thérèse suffered very much as a result of her sensitivity, and she cried in silence. Furthermore, the boisterous games at recreation were not to her taste. She preferred to tell stories or look after the little ones in the infants class. ” The five years I spent at school were the saddest of my life, and if my dear Céline had not been with me I could not have stayed there for a single month without falling ill.” ‘She now developed a fondness for hiding’ Céline informs us[13] ‘she did not want to be observed, for she sincerely considered herself inferior.'”[14] On her free days she became more and more attached to Marie Guérin, the younger of her two cousins in Lisieux. The two girls would play at being anchorites, as the great Teresa had once played with her brother. And every evening she plunged into the family circle. “Fortunately I could go home every evening and then I cheered up. I used to jump on Father’s knee and tell him what marks I had had, and when he kissed me all my troubles were forgotten…I needed this sort of encouragement so much.” Yet the tension of the double life and the daily self-conquest placed a strain on Thérèse. Going to school became more and more difficult.

Les Buissonnets, The Martin family house in Lisieux to which they moved in November 1877 following the death of Madame Martin. Thérèse lived here from November 16, 1877 to April 9, 1888, the day she entered Carmel.

When she was nine years old, in October 1882, her sister Pauline who had acted as a “second mother” to her, entered the Carmelite monastery at Lisieux. Thérèse was devastated. She understood that Pauline was cloistered and that she would never come back. “I said in the depths of my heart: Pauline is lost to me!” The shock reawakened in her the trauma caused by her mother’s death. She also wanted to join the Carmelites, but was told she was too young. Yet Thérèse so impressed Mother Marie Gonzague, prioress at the time of Pauline’s entry to the community that she wrote to comfort her, calling Thérèse “my future little daughter.”

Illness

At this time, Thérèse was often sick; she began to suffer from nervous tremors. The tremors started one night after her uncle took her for a walk and began to talk about Zélie. Assuming that she was cold, the family covered Therese with blankets, but the tremors continued; she clenched her teeth and could not speak. The family called Dr. Notta, who could make no diagnosis.[15] In 1882, Dr Gayral diagnosed that Thérèse “reacts to an emotional frustration with a neurotic attack.[16] An alarmed, but cloistered, Pauline began to write letters to Thérèse and attempted various strategies to intervene. Eventually Thérèse recovered after she had turned to gaze at the statue of the Virgin Mary placed in Marie’s room, where Thérèse had been moved.[17] She reported on 13 May 1883 that she had seen the Virgin smile at her.[18][19] She wrote: “Our Blessed Lady has come to me, she has smiled upon me. How happy I am.”[20] However, when Thérèse told the Carmelite nuns about this vision at the request of her eldest sister Marie, she found herself assailed by their questions and she lost confidence. Self doubt made her begin to question what had happened. “I thought I had lied – I was unable to look upon myself without a feeling of profound horror.”[21] “For a long time after my cure,I thought that my sickness was deliberate and this was a real martyrdom for my soul.” [22] Her concerns over this continued until November 1887.

In October 1886 her oldest sister, Marie, entered the same Carmelite monastery, adding to Thérèse’s grief. The warm atmosphere at Les Buissonnets, so necessary to her, was disappearing. Now only she and Céline remained with their father. Her frequent tears made some friends think she had a weak character and the Guérins indeed shared this opinion.

Thérèse also suffered from scruples, a condition experienced by other saints such as Alphonsus Liguori, also a Doctor of the Church and Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits. She wrote: “One would have to pass through this martyrdom to understand it well, and for me to express what I experienced for a year and a half would be impossible.”[23]

Thérèse in 1886, age 13. “It would certainly be unfair to call Thérèse of Lisieux limited, narrow. She was very alert and intelligent, and could certainly have gone to university today, passing all examinations with flying colours. But her horizon was limited – she was quite definitely a vertical person, could only grow skywards and into the depths – no breadth.” (Ida Gorres, Diaries 1955-57 )

Complete conversion: Christmas 1886

Christmas Eve 1886 was a turning point in the life of Therese; she called it her “complete conversion.” Years later she stated that on that night she overcame the pressures she had faced since the death of her mother and said that “God worked a little miracle to make me grow up in an instant.” “On that blessed night … Jesus, who saw fit to make Himself a child out of love for me, saw fit to have me come forth from the swaddling clothes and imperfections of childhood.”[24]

On Christmas Eve 1886, Louis Martin and his daughters, Léonie, Céline and Thérèse, had attended the midnight mass at the cathedral in Lisieux – “but there was very little heart left in them. On 1 December Léonie, covered in eczema and hiding her hair under a short mantilla, had returned to Les Buissonnets after just seven weeks of the Poor Clares regime in Alençon”, and her sisters were helping her get over her sense of failure and humiliation. Back at Les Buissonnets as every year, Thérèse ” as was the custom for French children, had left her shoes on the hearth, empty in anticipation of gifts, not from Father Christmas but from the Child Jesus, who was imagined to travel through the air bearing toys and cakes.” [25] While she was going up the stairs she heard her father, “perhaps exhausted by the hour, or this reminder of the relentless emotional demands of his weepy youngest daughter”, say to Céline, “Well, fortunately this will be the last year!” Thérèse had begun to cry and Céline advised her not to go back downstairs immediately. Then, suddenly, Thérèse pulled herself together and wiped her tears. She ran down the stairs, knelt by the fireplace and unwrapped her surprises as jubilantly as ever. In her account, nine years later, of 1895 : “In an instant Jesus, content with my good will, accomplished the work I had not been able to do in ten years.” After nine sad years she had “recovered the strength of soul she had lost when her mother died and, she said, she was to retain it forever.” She discovered the joy in self-forgetfulness and added ; “I felt, in a word, charity enter my heart, the need to forget myself to make others happy – Since this blessed night I was not defeated in any battle, but instead I went from victory to victory and began, so to speak, “to run a giant’s course.” (Psalms 19:5) “

“Thérèse instantly understood what had happened to her when she won this banal little victory over her sensitivity, which she had borne for so long… she had been vouchsafed a freedom which all her efforts had been unable to win. A long, painful period of growth lasting almost ten years was now over; …freedom is found in resolutely looking away from oneself.. and the fact that a person can cast himself away from himself reveals again that being good, victory is pure grace, a sudden gift..It cannot be coerced, and yet it can be received only by the patiently prepared heart.” [26] Biographer Kathryn Harrison : “After all , in the past she had tried to control herself, had tried with all her being and had failed. Grace, alchemy, masochism: through whatever lens we view her transport, Thérèse’s night of illumination presented both its power and its danger. It would guide her steps between the mortal and the divine, between living and dying, destruction and apotheosis. It would take her exactly where she intended to go.”

The character of the saint and the early forces that shaped her personality have been the subject of analysis, particularly in recent years. Apart from the family doctor who observed her in the 19th century, all other conclusions are inevitably speculative. For instance, author Ida Friederike Görres whose formal studies had focused on church history and hagiography wrote a book that performed a psychological analysis of the saint’s character. Some authors suggest that Thérèse had a strongly neurotic aspect to her personality for most of her life.[27][28][29][30] A recent biographer, Kathryn Harrison, concluded that, ” her temperament was not formed for compromise or moderation…a life spent not taming but directing her appetite and her will, a life perhaps shortened by the force of her desire and ambition.” [31]

Imitation of Christ, Rome, and entry to Carmel

15th century manuscript of The Imitation of Christ, Royal library, Brussels.

Before she was fourteen, when she started to experience a period of calm, Thérèse started to read The Imitation of Christ. She read the Imitation intently, as if the author traced each sentence for her: “The Kingdom of God is within you… Turn thee with thy whole heart unto the Lord; and forsake this wretched world: and thy soul shall find rest.”[32] She kept the book with her constantly and wrote later that this book and parts of another book of a very different character, lectures by Abbé Arminjon on The End of This World, and the Mysteries of the World to Come, nourished her during this critical period.[33] Thereafter she began to read other books, mostly on history and science.[18]

In May 1887, Thérèse approached her 63-year old father Louis, who was recovering from a small stroke, while he sat in the garden one Sunday afternoon and told him that she wanted to celebrate the anniversary of “her conversion” by entering Carmel before Christmas. Louis and Thérèse both broke down and cried, but Louis got up, gently picked a little white flower, root intact, and gave it to her, explaining the care with which God brought it into being and preserved it until that day. Thérèse later wrote: “while I listened I believed I was hearing my own story.” To Therese, the flower seemed a symbol of herself, “destined to live in another soil”. Thérèse then renewed her attempts to join the Carmel, but the priest-superior of the monastery would not allow it on account of her youth.

Thérèse at age 15 – For her journey to Mgr Hugonin, Bishop of Bayeux, to seek permission to enter Carmel at Christmas 1887 Thérèse had put up her hair for the first time, a symbol for being “grown-up.” A photograph taken in April 1888 shows a fresh, firm, girlish face..The familiar flowing locks are combed sternly back and up, piled in a hard little chignon on the top of her head…her face, vigorous, tensed, concentrated around an invisible core almost tough in its astonishing poise, with a resolute, straight mouth, stubborn chin; but this impression of toughness is contradicted by eyes full of profound life, clear and filled with a secret humour’[34]

During the summer, French newspapers were filled with the story of Henri Pranzini, convicted of the brutal murder of two women and a child. To the outraged public Pranzini represented all that threatened the decent way of life in France. In July and August 1887 Thérèse prayed hard for the conversion of Pranzini, so his soul could be saved, yet Pranzini showed no remorse. At the end of August, the newspapers reported that just as Pranzini’s neck was placed on the guillotine, he had grabbed a crucifix and kissed it three times. Thérèse was ecstatic and believed that her prayers had saved him. She continued to pray for Pranzini after his death.[35]

Leo XIII – In November 1887 when Thérèse met him, an old man of seventy-seven. ‘Thérèse Martin knelt down, kissed the Pope’s slipper, but, instead of kissing his hand said Most Holy Father, I have a great favour to ask of you.. Later, that evening, she wrote to Pauline – ” the Pope is so old that you would think he is dead.”

In November 1887, Louis took Céline and Thérèse on a diocesan pilgrimage to Rome for the priestly jubilee of Pope Leo XIII. The cost of the trip enforced a strict selection, a quarter of the pilgrims belonged to the nobility. The birth, in 1871, of the French Third Republic had marked a decline of the conservative right’s power. Forced onto the defensive, the royalist bourgeoisie perceived a strong Church as an important means of safeguarding France’s integrity and its future. The rise of a militant nationalist Catholicism, a trend that would, in 1894, result in the anti-Semitic scapegoating and trumped-up treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus was a development that Thérèse did not at all perceive. Still a sheltered child, Thérèse lived in ignorance of political events and motivations.[36] She did notice however, the ‘social ambition and vanity’. “Céline and I found ourselves mixing with members of the aristocracy; but we were not impressed..the words of the Imitation , ‘do not be solicitous for the shadow of a great name’, were not lost on me, and I realised that real nobility is in the soul, not in a name.[37] The youngest in the pilgrimage, bright and pretty, Thérèse did not go unnoticed. In Bologna a student boldly jostled against her on purpose. Visits followed one after another: Milan, Venice, Loreto; finally the arrival in Rome. On November 20, 1887, during a general audience with Leo XIII, Thérèse, in her turn, approached the Pope, knelt, and asked him to allow her to enter Carmel at 15. The Pope said: “Well, my child, do what the superiors decide…. You will enter if it is God’s Will” and he blessed Thérèse. She refused to leave his feet, and the Swiss Guard had to carry her out of the room.[38]

The trip continued: they visited Pompeii, Naples, Assisi; then it was back via Pisa and Genoa. The pilgrimage of nearly a month came at a timely point for her burgeoning personality. She learnt more than in many years of study. For the first and last time in her life, she left her native Normandy. Notably she, “who only knew priests in the exercise of their ministry was in their company, heard their conversations, not always edifying – and saw their shortcomings for herself.” [39] She had understood that she had to pray and give her life for sinners like Pranzini. But Carmel prayed especially for priests and this had surprised her since their souls seemed to her to be as pure as crystal. A month spent with many priests taught her that they are weak and feeble men. She wrote later: “I met many saintly priests that month, but I also found that in spite of being above angels by their supreme dignity, they were none the less men and still subject to human weakness. If the holy priests, ‘the salt of the earth’, as Jesus calls them in the Gospel, have to be prayed for, what about the lukewarm? Again, as Jesus says, ‘If the salt shall lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted?’ I understood my vocation in Italy.” For the first time too she had associated with young men. “In her brotherless existence, masculinity had been represented only by her father, her Uncle Guérin and various priests. Now she had her first and only experiences – troublesome and tempting ones. Céline declared at the beatification proceedings that one of the young men in the pilgrimage group fell in love with Thérèse (“developed a tender affection for her”). Thérèse confessed to her sister, ” It is high time for Jesus to remove me from the poisonous breath of the world…I feel that my heart is easily caught by tenderness, and where others fall, I would fall too. We are no stronger than the others.” [40]

Soon after that, the Bishop of Bayeux authorized the prioress to receive Thérèse, and on 9 April 1888 she became a Carmelite postulant.

In 1889, her father suffered a stroke and was taken to a private sanatorium, the Bon Sauveur at Caen, where he remained for three years before returning to Lisieux in 1892. He died on 29 July 1894. Upon his death, Céline, who had been caring for him, entered the same Carmel as her three sisters on 14 September 1894; their cousin, Marie Guérin, entered on 15 August 1895. Léonie, after several attempts, became Sister Françoise-Thérèse, a nun in the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary at Caen, where she died in 1941.[41]

The Little Flower in Carmel

The monastery Thérèse entered was not an old-established house with a great tradition. In 1838 two nuns from the Poitiers Carmel had been sent out to found the house of Lisieux. One of them Mother Geneviève of St Teresa, was still living when Thérèse entered…the second wing, containing the cells and sickrooms in which she was to live and die, had been standing only ten years.. ” What she found was a community of very aged nuns, some odd and cranky, some sick and troubled, some lukewarm and complacent. Almost all of the sisters came from the petty bourgeois and artisan class. The Prioress and Novice Mistress were of old Norman nobility. Probably the Martin sisters alone represented the new class of the rising bourgeoisie.” The Hidden Face p.193-195, Ida Gorres

Lisieux Carmel in 1888

The Carmelite order had been reformed in the sixteenth century by Teresa of Avila, essentially devoted to personal and collective prayer. The times of silence and of solitude were many but the foundress had also planned for time for work and relaxation in common – the austerity of the life should not hinder sisterly and joyful relations. Founded in 1838, the Carmel of Lisieux in 1888 had 26 religious, from very different classes and backgrounds. For the majority of the life of Thérèse, the prioress would be Mother Marie de Gonzague, born Marie-Adéle-Rosalie Davy de Virville. When Thérèse entered the convent Mother Marie was 54, a woman of changeable humour, jealous of her authority, used sometimes in a capricious manner; this had for effect, a certain laxity in the observance of established rules. “In the sixties and seventies of the [nineteenth] century an aristocrat in the flesh counted for far more in a petty bourgeois convent than we can realize nowadays..the superiors appointed Marie de Gonzague to the highest offices as soon as her novitiate was finished…in 1874 began the long series of terms as Prioress.” [42]

Postulant

Thérèse’s time as a postulant began with her welcome into the Carmel, Monday 9 April 1888, the Feast of the Annunciation. She felt peace after she received communion that day and later wrote: “At last my desires were realized, and I cannot describe the deep sweet peace which filled my soul. This peace has remained with me during the eight and a half years of my life here, and has never left me even amid the greatest trials.”[43] From her childhood, Thérèse had dreamed of the desert to which God would some day lead her. Now she had entered that desert. Though she was now reunited with Marie and Pauline, from the first day she began her struggle to win and keep her distance from her sisters. Right at the start Marie de Gonzague, the prioress, had turned the postulant Thérèse over to her eldest sister Marie, who was to teach her to follow the Divine Office. Later she appointed Thérèse assistant to Pauline in the refectory. And when her cousin Marie Guerin also entered, she employed the two together in the sacristy. Thérèse adhered strictly to the rule which forbade all superfluous talk during work. She saw her sisters together only in the hours of common recreation after meals. At such times she would sit down beside whomever she happened to be near, or beside a nun whom she had observed to be downcast, disregarding the tacit and sometimes expressed sensitivity and even jealousy of her biological sisters. “We must apologize to the others for our being four under one roof,” she was in the habit of remarking. “When I am dead, you must be very careful not to lead a family life with one another…I did not come to Carmel to be with my sisters; on the contrary, I saw clearly that their presence would cost me dear, for I was determined not to give way to nature.

Though the novice mistress, Sr. Marie of the Angels, (Jeanne de Charmontel ), found Thérèse slow, the young postulant adapted well to her new environment. She wrote :”Illusions, the Good Lord gave me the grace to have none on entering Carmel:I found religious life as I had figured, no sacrifice astonished me.” She sought above all to conform to the rules and customs of the Carmelites that she learnt each day with her four religious of the novitiate. (Sr Marie of the Angels, 43, Sister Marie-Philomene, 48, ‘very holy, very limited’; Sister Marie of the Sacred Heart, her oldest sister and godmother; Sister Marthe of Jesus, 23, an orphan, ‘a poor little unintelligent sister’ according to Pauline). Later, when Thérèse had become assistant to the novice mistress she repeated how important respect for the Rule was: “When any break the rule, this is not a reason to justify ourselves. Each must act as if the perfection of the Order depended on her personal conduct.” She also affirmed the essential role of obedience in religious life: “When you stop watching the infallible compass [of obedience], as quickly the mind wanders in arid lands where the water of grace is soon lacking.” She chose a spiritual director, a Jesuit, Father Pichon. At their first meeting, 28 May 1888, she made a general confession going back over all her past sins. She came away from it profoundly relieved. The priest who had himself suffered from scruples, understood her and reassured her.[44] A few months later, he left for Canada, and Thérèse would only be able to ask his advice by letter and his replies were rare. (On 4 July 1897, she confided to Pauline, ‘Father Pichon treated me too much like a child; nonetheless he did me a lot of good too by saying that I never committed a mortal sin.’) During her time as postulant Thérèse had to endure some bullying from other sisters because of her lack of aptitude for handicrafts and manual work. Sister St Vincent de Paul, the finest embroideress in the community made her feel awkward and even called her ‘the big nanny goat’. Thérèse was in fact the tallest in the family, 1.62 metres {approx. 5’3}- Pauline, the shortest, no more than 1.54m tall {approx.5’0}. During her last visit to Trouville at the end of June 1887, Thérèse was called, with her long blond hair, ‘the tall English girl.’ ) Like all religious she discovered the ups and downs related to differences in temperament, character, problems of sensitivities or infirmities. After nine years she wrote plainly : ” the lack of judgment, education, the touchiness of some characters, all these things do not make life very pleasant. I know very well that these moral weaknesses are chronic, that there is no hope of cure.” But the greatest suffering came from outside Carmel. On June 23, 1888 Louis Martin disappeared from his home and was found days later, in the post office in Le Havre. The incident marked the onset of her father’s steep physical and mental decline.

Novice (10 January 1889 – 24 September 1890)

Certain passages from the prophet Isaiah (Chapter53) helped her during her long novitiate..Six weeks before her death she remarked to Pauline : “The words in Isaiah: No stateliness here, no majesty, no beauty, as we gaze upon him, to win our hearts. Nay, here is one despised, left out of all human reckoning; how should we recognize that face? – these words were the basis of my whole worship of the Holy Face…I too, wanted to be without comeliness and beauty, unknown to all creatures. (Photograph: fragment of Isaiah found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls)[45]

The end of Thérèse’s time as a postulant arrived on the 10 January 1889 with her taking of the habit. From that time she wore the ‘rough homespun and brown scapular, white wimple and veil, leather belt with rosary, woollen ‘stockings’, rope sandals. ” [46] Her father’s health having temporarily stabilised he was able to attend, though twelve days after her ceremony a particularly serious crisis led to his being put in the asylum of the Bon Sauveur in Caen where he would remain for three years. In this period Thérèse deepened the sense of her vocation; to lead a hidden life, to pray and offer her suffering for priests, to forget herself, to increase discreet acts of charity. She wrote, ‘I applied myself especially to practice little virtues, not having the facility to perform great ones.’ “In her letters from this period of her novitiate, Thérèse returned over and over to the theme of littleness, referring to herself as a grain of sand, an image she borrowed from Pauline..’Always littler, lighter, in order to be lifted more easily by the breeze of love.’ The remainder of her life would be defined by retreat and subtraction.” [47] She absorbed the work of John of the Cross, spiritual reading uncommon at the time, especially for such a young nun. “Oh! what insights I have gained from the works of our holy father, St John of the Cross! When I was seventeen and eighteen, I had no other spiritual nourishment..” She felt a kinship with this classic writer of the Carmelite Order (though nothing seems to have drawn her to the writing of Teresa of Avila), – and with enthusiasm she read his works, The Ascent of Mount Carmel, the Way of Purification, the Spiritual Canticle, the Living Flame of Love. Passages from these writings are woven into everything she herself said and wrote.[48] The fear of God, which she found in certain sisters, paralysed her. “My nature is such that fear makes me recoil, with LOVE not only do I go forward, I fly[49]

With the new name a Carmelite receives when she enters the Order there is always an epithet : Teresa of Jesus, Elizabeth of the Trinity, Anne of the Angels. The epithet singles out the Mystery which she is supposed to contemplate with special devotion. “Thérèse’s names in religion – she had two of them – must be taken together to define her religious significance.” [50] The first name was promised to her at nine, by Mother Marie de Gonzague, of the Child Jesus, and was given to her at her entry into the convent. In itself, veneration of the childhood of Jesus was a Carmelite heritage of the seventeenth century – it concentrated upon the staggering humiliation of divine majesty in assuming the shape of extreme weakness and helplessness. The French Oratory of Jesus and Pierre de Bérulle renewed this old devotional practice. Yet when she received the veil, Thérèse herself asked Mother Marie de Gonzague to confer upon her the second name; of the Holy Face. During the course of her novitiate, contemplation of the Holy Face had nourished her inner life. This is an image representing the disfigured face of Jesus during His Passion. And she meditated on certain pasages from the prophet Isaiah, (Chapter 53). Six weeks before her death she remarked to Pauline :”The words in Isaiah: ‘no stateliness here, no majesty, no beauty,..one despised, left out of all human reckoning; How should we take any account of him, a man so despised (Is 53:2-3) – these words were the basis of my whole worship of the Holy Face ..I, too, wanted to be without comeliness and beauty..unknown to all creatures.” [51] On the eve of her profession she wrote to Sister Marie; Tomorrow I shall be the bride of Jesus ‘whose face was hidden and whom no man knew’ – what a union and what a future!.[52] The meditation also helped her understand the humiliating situation of her father.

Usually the novitiate preceding profession lasted a year. Sister Thérèse hoped to make her final commitment on or after 11 January 1890 – but, considered still too young for a final commitment, her profession was postponed; she would spend eight months longer than the standard year as an unprofessed novice. As 1889 ended, her old home in the world Les Buissonnets, was dismantled, the furniture divided among the Guérins and the Carmel. It was not until September 8, 1890, aged 17 and a half, that she made her religious profession. The retreat in anticipation of her irrevocable promises was characterized by absolute aridity and on the eve of her profession she gave way to panic. “What she wanted was beyond her. Her vocation was a sham.” [53] Reassured by the novice mistress and mother Marie de Gonzague, the next day her religious profession went ahead, ‘flooded with a river of peace’. Against her heart she wore her letter of profession written during her retreat. ” May creatures be nothing for me, and may I be nothing for them, but may You, Jesus, be everything!..let nobody be occupied with me, let me be looked upon as one to be trampled underfoot..may Your will be done in me perfectly..Jesus, allow me to save very many souls; let no soul be lost today; let all the souls in purgatory be saved..” On September 24, the public ceremony followed – filled with ‘sadness and bitterness’. “Thérèse found herself young enough, alone enough, to weep over the absence of Bishop Hugonin, Père Pichon, in Canada; and her own father, still confined in the asylum.” [54] But Mother Marie de Gonzague wrote to the prioress of Tours : “The angelic child is seventeen and a half, with the sense of a 30 year old, the religious perfection of an old and accomplished novice, and possession of herself; she is a perfect nun.”

The Discreet life of a Carmelite – (September 1890 – February 1893)

The years which followed were those of a maturation of her vocation. Thérèse prayed without great sensitive emotions, she multiplied the small acts of charity and care for others, doing small services, without making a show of them. She accepted criticism in silence, even unjust criticisms, and smiled at the sisters who were unpleasant to her. She prayed always much for priests, and in particular for Father Hyacinthe Loyson, a famous preacher who had been a Sulpician and a Dominican novice before becoming a Carmelite and provincial of his order, but who had left the Catholic Church in 1869. Three years later he married a young widow, a Protestant, with whom he had a son. After major excommunication had been pronounced against him, he continued to travel round France giving lectures. While clerical papers called Loyson a renegade monk and Leon Bloy lampooned him, Thérèse prayed for her brother. She offered her last communion, 19 August 1897, for Father Hyacinthe.

The chaplain of the Carmel, Father Youf insisted a lot on the fear of Hell. The preachers of spiritual retreats at that time did not refrain from stressing sin, the sufferings of purgatory, and those of hell. This did not help Thérèse who in 1891 experienced, great inner trials of all kinds, even wondering sometimes whether heaven existed. One phrase heard during a sermon made her weep : “No one knows if they are worthy of love or of hate.” But the retreat of October 1891 was preached by Father Alexis Prou, a Franciscan from Saint-Nazaire. ” He specialised in large crowds ( he preached in factories) and did not seem the right person to help Carmelites. Just one of them found comfort from him : Sister Thèrèse of the Child Jesus..[his] preaching on abandonment and mercy expanded her heart.” [55] This confirmed Thérèse in her own intuitions. She wrote :” My soul was like a book which the priest read better than I did. He launched me full sail on the waves of confidence and love which held such an attraction for me, but upon which I had not dared to venture. He told me that my faults did not offend God.” Her spiritual life drew more and more on the Gospels that she carried with her at all times. The piety of her time was fed more on commentaries, but Thérèse had asked Céline to get the Gospels and the Epistles of St Paul bound into a single small volume which she could carry on her heart. it is especially the Gospels which sustain me during my hours of prayer…I am always gaining fresh insights and finding hidden and mysterious meanings.

More and more Thérèse realised that she felt no attraction to the exalted heights of great souls. She looked directly for the word of Jesus, which shed light on her prayers and on her daily life. Thérèse’s retreat in October 1892 pointed out to her a downward path. If asked where she lived, she reflected, must not she be able to answer with Christ : The foxes have their lairs, the birds of heaven their nests, but I have no place to rest my head. (Matthew 8:20). She wrote to Céline, (letter October 19, 1892): “Jesus..raised us above all the fragile things of this world whose image passes away. Like Zacchaeus, we climbed a tree to see Jesus…and now..Let us listen to what he is saying to us : Make haste to descend, I must lodge today at your house. Well, Jesus tells us to descend?” ‘A question here of the interior,’ she qualified in her letter, lest Céline think she meant renouncing food or shelter. “Thérèse knew her virtues, even her love, to be flawed: flawed by self, a mirror too clouded to reflect the divine.” She continued to seek to discover the means, ‘to more efficiently strip herself of self..’ [56]No doubt, [our hearts] are already empty of creatures, but, alas, I feel mine is not entirely empty of myself, and it is for this reason that Jesus tells me to descend..[57]

Election of Mother Agnes

On February 20, 1893 Pauline was elected prioress of Carmel and became Mother Agnes. Pauline appointed the former prioress novice mistress and made Thérèse her assistant. The work of guiding the novices would fall primarily to Thérèse. Over the next few years she revealed a talent for clarifying doctrine to those who had not received as much education as she. A kaleidoscope, whose three mirrors transform scraps of coloured paper into beautiful designs, provided an inspired illustration for the Holy Trinity. “As long as our actions, even the smallest, do not fall away from the focus of Divine Love, the Holy Trinity, symbolized by the three mirrors, allows them to reflect wonderful beauty. Jesus, who regards us through the little lens, that is to say, through Himself, always sees beauty in everything we do. But if we left the focus of inexpressible love, what would He see? Bits of straw..dirty, worthless actions.” [58] “Another cherished image was that of the newly invented elevator, a vehicle Thérèse used many times over to describe God’s grace, a force that lifts us to heights we can’t reach on our own.” [59] Her sister Céline’s memoir is filled with numerous examples of the teacher Thérèse: “Céline: – ‘Oh! When I think how much I have to acquire!’ Thérèse: – ‘Rather, how much you have to lose! Jesus Himself will fill your soul with treasures in the same measure that you move your imperfections out of the way..’ And Céline recalled a story Thérèse told about egotism. ‘The 28 month old Thérèse visited Le Mans and was given a basket filled with candies, at the top of which were two sugar rings..’Oh! How wonderful! There is a sugar ring for Céline too!’ On her way to the station however the basket overturned, and one of the sugar rings disappeared. ‘Ah, I no longer have any sugar ring for poor Céline!’ Reminding me of the incident she observed; ‘See how deeply rooted in us is this self-love! Why was it Céline’s sugar ring, and not mine, that was lost?’ [60] Martha of Jesus, a novice who spent her childhood in a series of orphanages and who was described by all as emotionally unbalanced, with a violent temper, gave witness during the beatification process of the ‘unusual dedication and presence of her young teacher. “Thérèse deliberately ‘sought out the company of those nuns whose temperaments she found hardest to bear.’ What merit was there in acting charitably toward people whom one loved naturally? Thérèse went out of her way to spend time with, and therefore to love, the people she found repellent. It was an effective means of achieving interior poverty, a way to remove a place to rest her head.” [61]

In September 1893, Thérèse, having been a professed novice for the standard three years, asked not to be promoted but to continue a novice indefinitely. As a novice she would always have to ask permission of the other, full sisters: she would never be elected to any position of importance. Remaining closely associated with the other novices, she could continue to care for her spiritual charges.

The nineteenth century rediscovered Joan of Arc. In 1841 Jules Michelet devoted the major part of the fifth volume of his History of France to a favourable presentation of the epic of the Maid of Orleans and Felix Dupanloup worked relentlessly for the glorification of Joan who on May 8, 1429 had liberated Orléans, the city of which he became bishop in 1849…Thérèse wrote two plays in honour of her childhood heroine, the first about Joan’s response to the heavenly voices calling her to battle, the second about her resulting martyrdom.

The year 1894 brought a national celebration of Joan of Arc. On January 27 Leo XIII authorized the introduction of her cause of beatification, declaring Joan, the shepherdess from Lorraine ‘venerable’. Thérèse used Henri Wallon’s history of Joan of Arc – a book her uncle Isidore had given to the Carmel – to help her write two plays, ‘pious recreations’, “small theatrical pieces performed by a few nuns for the rest of the community, on the occasion of certain feast days.” The first of these, The Mission of Joan of Arc was performed at the Carmel on January 21, 1894, and the second Joan of Arc Accomplishes her Mission on January 21, 1895. In the estimation of one of her biographers, Ida Görres, they “are scarcely veiled self-portraits.” [62]

On July 29, 1894 Louis Martin died. Sick, he had been cared for by Céline. Following his death, and supported by Thérèse’s letters and the advice of her other sisters, she entered the Lisieux convent on 14 September 1894. With Mother Agnes’ permission, she brought her camera to Carmel, and developing materials . “The indulgence was not by any means usual. Also outside of the normal would be the destiny of those photographs Céline would make in the Carmel, images that would be scrutinized and reproduced too many times to count. Even when the images are poorly reproduced, her eyes arrest us .Described as blue, described as gray, they look darker in photographs..Céline’s pictures of her sister contributed to the extraordinary cult of personality that formed in the years after Thérèses death.” [63]

At the end of December 1894 and perhaps prompted by their fear that she was dying, her older sisters requested that Thérèse write about her childhood.

The discovery of the little way

Thérèse entered the Carmel of Lisieux with the determination to become a saint. But, by the end of 1894, six full calendar years as a Carmelite made her realize how small and insignificant she was. She saw the limitations of all her efforts. She remained small and very far off from the unfailing love that she would wish to practice. She understood then that it was on this very littleness that she must lean to ask God’s help. Along with her camera, Céline had brought notebooks with her, passages from the Old Testament, which Thérèse did not have in Carmel. (The Louvain Bible, the translation authorized for French Catholics, did not include an Old Testament). In the notebooks Thérèse found a passage from Proverbs that struck her with particular force. If anyone is a very little one, let him come to me. (Proverbs,9,4) And, from the book of Isaiah (66:12-13), she was profoundly struck by another passage: As a mother caresses her child, so I shall console you, I shall carry you at my breast and I shall swing you on my knees. She concluded that Jesus would carry her to the summit of sanctity. The smallness of Thérèse, her limits, became in this way grounds for joy, more than discouragement. It is only in Manuscript C of her autobiography that she gave to this discovery the name of little way, petite voie. Echoes of this way however are heard throughout her work. From February 1895 she would regularly sign her letters by adding very little, toute petite, in front of her name. According to the writer Ida Gorres, however, this language should always be measured against the ‘unfailing, iron self-conquest of her whole life.’ “We know how intensely her life was given to the performance of duty, to the pursuit of good works, to the cultivation of all the virtues…[yet] she rejected all ascetic efforts which were directed not towards God but toward ones own perfection. It was on this view then, that she based her extraordinary refusal to consider her daily faults important.. because of her lack of illusions in her view of human beings, she assigned to these things, no more significance than they deserved.” ” I have long believed that the Lord is more tender than a mother. I know that a mother is always ready to forgive trivial, involuntary misbehaviour on the part of her child..Children are always giving trouble, falling down, getting themselves dirty, breaking things – but all this does not shake their parents love for them.[64]

Offering to merciful love

At the end of the second play that Thérèse had written on Joan of Arc the costume she wore almost caught fire. The alcohol stoves used to represent the stake at Rouen set fire to the screen behind which Thérèse stood. Thérèse did not flinch but the incident marked her. The theme of fire would assume an increasingly great place in her writings.[65] On June 9, 1895, during a mass celebrating the feast of the Holy Trinity, Thérèse had a sudden inspiration that she must offer herself as a sacrificial victim to merciful love. At this time some nuns offered themselves as a victim to God’s justice. In her cell she drew up an ‘Act of Oblation’ for herself and for Céline, and on June 11, the two of them knelt before the miraculous Virgin and Thérèse read the document she had written and signed. In the evening of this life, I shall appear before You with empty hands, for I do not ask you lord to count my works.. According to biographer Ida Gorres the document echoed the happiness she had felt when Father Alexis Prou, the Franciscan preacher, had assured her that her faults did not cause God sorrow. In the Oblation she wrote : “If through weakness I should chance to fall, may a glance from Your Eyes straightway cleanse my soul, and consume all my imperfections-as fire transforms all things into itself.

In August 1895 the four Martin sisters were joined by their cousin, Marie Guerin, in religion, Sister Marie of the Eucharist. In October 1895 a young seminarian and subdeacon of the White Fathers, Abbé Bellière, asked the Carmel of Lisieux for a nun who would support – by prayer and sacrifice – his missionary work, and the souls that were in the future to be entrusted to him.[66] Mother Agnes designated Thérèse. She never met Father Bellière but ten letters passed between them.

In 1896 Father Adolphe Roulland of the Society of Foreign Missions asked the Carmel of Lisieux for a spiritual sister. Thérèse was assigned the duties – she answered questions, consoled, warned, and instructed the priest in the meaning of her little way. As everywhere in her doctrine it is based on the scriptures :”I rejoice in my littleness, because only little children and those who are like them shall be admitted to the Heavenly Banquet.” Letter to Père Roulland,, 9 May 1897

A year later Father Adolphe Roulland (1870–1934) of the Society of Foreign Missions requested the same service of the Lisieux Carmel. Once more Thérèse was assigned the duties of spiritual sister. “It is quite clear that Thérèse, in spite of all her reverence for the priestly office, in both cases felt herself to be the teacher and the giver. It is she who who consoles and warns, encourages and praises, answers questions, offers corroboration, and instructs the priests in the meaning of her little way. ” [67]

The final years, disease and night of faith

Thérèse’s final years were marked by a steady decline that she bore resolutely and without complaint. Tuberculosis was the key element of Thérèse’s final suffering, but she saw that as part of her spiritual journey. After observing a rigorous Lenten fast in 1896, she went to bed on the eve of Good Friday and felt a joyous sensation. She wrote: “Oh! how sweet this memory really is!… I had scarcely laid my head upon the pillow when I felt something like a bubbling stream mounting to my lips. I didn’t know what it was.”

St Thérèse working with other Carmelite nuns, from left to right, Sr. Marie of the Trinity, Sr. Thérèse, Sr. Geneviève (Céline), and Sr. Martha of Jesus. 1895, sometime before the end of July.[68]

The next morning she found blood on her handkerchief and understood her fate. Coughing up of blood meant tuberculosis, and tuberculosis meant death.[69] She wrote:

“I thought immediately of the joyful thing that I had to learn, so I went over to the window. I was able to see that I was not mistaken. Ah! my soul was filled with a great consolation; I was interiorly persuaded that Jesus, on the anniversary of His own death, wanted to have me hear His first call!”

Thérèse corresponded with a Carmelite mission in what was then French Indochina and was invited to join them, but, because of her sickness, could not travel.

As a result of Tuberculosis, Thérèse suffered terribly. When she was near death “Her physical suffering kept increasing so that even the doctor himself was driven to exclaim, ‘Ah! If you only knew what this young nun was suffering!’”[70] During the last hours of Therese’s life, she said, “‘I would never have believed it was possible to suffer so much, never, never!”[71]

In July 1897, she made a final move to the monastery infirmary. On August 19, 1897, Therese received her last communion. She died on 30 September 1897 at the young age of 24. On her death-bed, she is reported to have said:”I have reached the point of not being able to suffer any more, because all suffering is sweet to me.”

Her last words were, “My God, I love you!”

Thérèse was buried on October 4, 1897 in the Carmelite plot in the municipal cemetery at Lisieux, where Louis and Zelie had been buried. In March 1923, however, before she was beatified, her body was returned to the Carmel of Lisieux, where it remains.

Spiritual legacy

At fourteen, Thérèse had understood her vocation to pray for priests, to be “an apostle to apostles.” In September 1890, at her canonical examination before she professed her religious vows, she was asked why she had come to Carmel. She answered “I came to save souls, and especially to pray for priests.” Throughout her life she prayed fervently for priests, and she corresponded with and prayed for a young priest, Adolphe Roulland, and a young seminarian, Maurice Bellière. She wrote to her sister “Our mission as Carmelites is to form evangelical workers who will save thousands of souls whose mothers we shall be.”[2]

Thérèse was devoted to Eucharistic meditation and on February 26, 1895 shortly before she died wrote from memory and without a rough draft her poetic masterpiece “To Live by Love” which had composed during Eucharistic meditation. During her life, the poem was sent to various religious communities and was included in a notebook of her poems.[72][73]

The Child Jesus and the Holy Face

A depiction of the Holy Face of Jesus as Veronica’s veil, by Claude Mellan c. 1649. St. Thérèse wore an image of the Holy Face on her heart.

Thérèse entered the Carmelite order on 9 April 1888. On 10 January 1889, after a probationary period somewhat longer than the usual, she was given the habit and received the name: Thérèse of the Child Jesus. On 8 September 1890, Thérèse took her vows; the ceremony of taking the veil followed on the 24th, when she added to her name in religion, “of the Holy Face”, a title which was to become increasingly important in the development and character of her inner life.[74] In his “A l’ecole de Therese de Lisieux: maitresse de la vie spirituelle,” Bishop Guy Gaucher emphasizes that Therese saw the devotions to the Child Jesus and to the Holy Face as so completely linked that she signed herself “Therese de l’Enfant Jesus de la Sainte Face”–Therese of the Child Jesus of the Holy Face. In her poem “My Heaven down here”, composed in 1895, Therese expressed the notion that by the divine union of love, the soul takes on the semblance of Christ. By contemplating the sufferings associated with the Holy Face of Jesus, she felt she could become closer to Christ.[75]

The devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus was promoted by another Carmelite nun, Sister Marie of St Peter in Tours, France in 1844 and then by Leo Dupont, also known as the Apostle of the Holy Face who formed the “Archconfraternity of the Holy Face” in Tours in 1851.[76][77] Thérèse, who was a member of this confraternity,[78] was introduced to the Holy Face devotion by her blood sister Pauline, known as Sister Agnes of Jesus.

Her parents, Louis and Zelie Martin, had also prayed at the Oratory of the Holy Face, originally established by Leo Dupont in Tours.[79] Thérèse wrote many prayers to express her devotion to the Holy Face. She wrote the words “Make me resemble you, Jesus!” on a small card and attached a stamp with an image of the Holy Face. She pinned the prayer in a small container over her heart. In August 1895, in her “Canticle to the Holy Face,” she wrote:

“Jesus, Your ineffable image is the star which guides my steps. Ah, You know, Your sweet Face is for me Heaven on earth. My love discovers the charms of Your Face adorned with tears. I smile through my own tears when I contemplate Your sorrows”.

Thérèse emphasised God’s mercy in both the birth and the passion narratives in the Gospel. She wrote:[80]

“He sees it disfigured, covered with blood!… unrecognizable!… And yet the divine Child does not tremble; this is what He chooses to show His love.”

She also composed the Holy Face prayer for sinners:[81]

“Eternal Father, since Thou hast given me for my inheritance the adorable Face of Thy Divine Son, I offer that face to Thee and I beg Thee, in exchange for this coin of infinite value, to forget the ingratitude of souls dedicated to Thee and to pardon all poor sinners.”

Thérèse’s devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus was based on painted images of the Veil of Veronica,[clarification needed] as promoted by Leon Dupont fifty years earlier. However, over the decades, her poems and prayers helped to spread the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.[82]

The Little Way

Thérèse in July 1896

In her quest for sanctity, she believed that it was not necessary to accomplish heroic acts, or “great deeds”, in order to attain holiness and to express her love of God. She wrote,

“Love proves itself by deeds, so how am I to show my love? Great deeds are forbidden me. The only way I can prove my love is by scattering flowers and these flowers are every little sacrifice, every glance and word, and the doing of the least actions for love.”

This little way of Therese is the foundation of her spirituality:[83] Within the Catholic Church Thérèse’s way was known for some time as “the little way of spiritual childhood,” but Thérèse actually wrote “little way” only once,[84] and she never wrote the phrase “spiritual childhood.” It was her sister Pauline who, after Thérèse’s death, adopted the phrase “the little way of spiritual childhood” to interpret Thérèse’s path.[85] Years after Thérèse’s death, a Carmelite of Lisieux asked Pauline about this phrase and Pauline answered spontaneously “But you know well that Thérèse never used it! It is mine.” In May 1897, Thérèse wrote to Father Adolphe Roulland, “My way is all confidence and love.” To Maurice Bellière she wrote “and I, with my way, will do more than you, so I hope that one day Jesus will make you walk by the same way as me.”

“Sometimes, when I read spiritual treatises in which perfection is shown with a thousand obstacles, surrounded by a crowd of illusions, my poor little mind quickly tires. I close the learned book which is breaking my head and drying up my heart, and I take up Holy Scripture. Then all seems luminous to me; a single word uncovers for my soul infinite horizons; perfection seems simple; I see that it is enough to recognize one’s nothingness and to abandon oneself, like a child, into God’s arms. Leaving to great souls, to great minds, the beautiful books I cannot understand, I rejoice to be little because ‘only children, and those who are like them, will be admitted to the heavenly banquet.’ “

Passages like this have left Thérèse open to the charge that her spirituality is sentimental, immature, and unexamined. Her proponents counter that she developed an approach to the spiritual life that people of every background can understand and adopt.

This is evident in her approach to prayer:[86]

“For me, prayer is a movement of the heart; it is a simple glance toward Heaven; it is a cry of gratitude and love in times of trial as well as in times of joy; finally, it is something great, supernatural, which expands my soul and unites me to Jesus. . . . I have not the courage to look through books for beautiful prayers…. I do like a child who does not know how to read; I say very simply to God what I want to say, and He always understands me.”

Autobiography – The Story of a Soul

The crypt of the Basilica of St. Therese in Lisieux

St. Thérèse is known today because of her spiritual memoir, L’histoire d’une âme (The Story of a Soul), which she wrote upon the orders of two prioresses of her monastery, and because of the many miracles worked at her intercession. She began to write “Story of a Soul” in 1895 as a memoir of her childhood, under instructions from her sister Pauline, known in religion as Mother Agnes of Jesus. Mother Agnes gave the order after being prompted by their eldest sister, Sister Marie of the Sacred Heart. While Thérèse was on retreat in September 1896, she wrote a letter to Sister Marie of the Sacred Heart which also forms part of what was later published as “Story of a Soul.” In June 1897, Mother Agnes became aware of the seriousness of Thérèse’s illness; she immediately asked Mother Marie de Gonzague, who had succeeded her as prioress, to allow Thérèse to write another memoir with more details of her religious life. With selections from Therese’s letters and poems and reminiscences of her by the other nuns, it was published posthumously. It was heavily edited by Pauline (Mother Agnes), who made more than seven thousand revisions to Therese’s manuscript and presented it as a biography of her sister. (Aside from considerations of style, Mother Marie de Gonzague had ordered Pauline to alter the first two sections of the manuscript to make them appear as if they were addressed to Mother Marie as well).

Saint Therese’ had written her autobiography under obedience. While on her deathbed the Saint made many references to the book’s future appeal and benefit to souls.

Since 1973, two centenary editions of Thérèse’s original, unedited manuscripts, including The Story of a Soul, her letters, poems[87], prayers and the plays she wrote for the monastery recreations have been published in French. ICS Publications has issued a complete critical edition of her writings: Story of a Soul, Last Conversations, and the two volumes of her letters were translated by John Clarke, O.C.D.; The Poetry of Saint Thérèse by Donald Kinney, O.C.D.; The Prayers of St. Thérèse by Alethea Kane, O.C.D.; and The Religious Plays of St. Therese of Lisieux by David Dwyer and Susan Conroy.

Recognition

Canonization

Interior of the Basilica of St. Thérèse

In 1902, the Polish Carmelite Father Raphael Kalinowski (later Saint Raphael Kalinowski) translated her autobiography The Story of a Soul into Polish.

Her autobiography has inspired many people, including the Italian writer Maria Valtorta.

Pope Pius X signed the decree for the opening of her process of canonization on 10 June 1914. Pope Benedict XV, in order to hasten the process, dispensed with the usual fifty-year delay required between death and beatification. On 14 August 1921, he promulgated the decree on the heroic virtues of Thérèse and gave an address on Thérèse’s way of confidence and love, recommending it to the whole Church.

There may, however, have been a political dimension to the speed of proceedings: partly to act as tonic for a nation exhausted by war, or even a retort from the Vatican against the dominant secularism and anti-clericalism of the French government.

According to some biographies of Édith Piaf, in 1922 the singer — at the time, an unknown seven-year-old girl — was cured from blindness after pilgrimage to the grave of Thérèse, at the time not yet formally canonized.

Thérèse was beatified on 29 April 1923 and canonized on 17 May 1925, by Pope Pius XI, only 28 years after her death. Her feast day was added to the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1927 for celebration on 3 October.[88] In 1969, 42 years later, Pope Paul VI moved it to 1 October, the day after her dies natalis (birthday to heaven).[89]

Thérèse of Lisieux is the patron saint of aviators, florists, illness(es) and missions. She is also considered by Catholics to be the patron saint of Russia, although the Russian Orthodox Church does not recognize either her canonization or her patronage. In 1927, Pope Pius XI named Thérèse a patroness of the missions and in 1944 Pope Pius XII named her co-patroness of France alongside St. Joan of Arc.

By the Apostolic Letter Divini Amoris Scientia (The Science of Divine Love) of 19 October 1997, Pope John Paul II declared her one of the thirty-three Doctors of the Universal Church, one of only three women so named, the others being Teresa of Ávila (Saint Teresa of Jesus) and Catherine of Siena. Thérèse was the only saint to be named a Doctor of the Church during Pope John Paul II’s pontificate.

Beatification of St. Therese’s Parents

A movement is now underway to canonise her parents, who were declared “Venerable” in 1994 by Pope John Paul II. In 2004, the Archbishop of Milan accepted the unexpected cure of a child with a lung disorder as attributable to their intercession. Announced by Cardinal Saraiva Martins on 12 July 2008, at the ceremonies marking the 150th anniversary of the marriage of the Venerable Zelie and Louis Martin, their beatification as a couple [3] (the last step before canonization) took place on Mission Sunday, 19 October 2008, at Lisieux.[90][91] In 2011 the letters of Blessed Zélie and Louis Martin were published in English as A Call to a Deeper Love: The Family Correspondence of the Parents of Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus, 1863-1885.[92]

Some interest has also been shown in promoting for sainthood Thérèse’s sister, Léonie, the only one of the five sisters who did not become a Carmelite nun. She entered religious life three times before her fourth and final entrance in 1899 at the Monastery of the Visitation at Caen. She took the name Sister Françoise-Thérèse and was a fervent disciple of Thérèse’s way. She died in 1941 in Caen, where her tomb in the crypt of the Visitation Monastery can be visited by the public.[4]

Influence

Together with St. Francis of Assisi, St. Thérèse of Lisieux is one of the most popular Catholic saints since apostolic times. As a Doctor of the Church, she is the subject of much theological comment and study, and, as an appealing young woman whose message has touched the lives of millions, she remains the focus of much popular devotion.

Relics of St. Thérèse on a world pilgrimage

For many years Thérèse’s relics have toured the world, and thousands of pilgrims have thronged to pray in their presence. Although Cardinal Basil Hume had declined to endorse proposals for a tour in 1997, her relics finally visited England and Wales in late September and early October 2009, including an overnight stop in the Anglican York Minster on her feastday, 1 October. A quarter of a million people venerated them.[93]

On 27 June 2010, the relics of St. Thérèse made their first visit to South Africa in conjunction with the 2010 World Cup. They remained in the country until 5 October 2010.[94]

With more than two million visitors a year, the Basilica of St. Thérèse in Lisieux is the second largest pilgrimage site in France, after Lourdes

Religious congregations

The Congregation of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux was founded on 19 March 1931 by Mar Augustine Kandathil, the Metropolitan of the Catholic St. Thomas Christians, as the first Indian religious order for brothers.[95]

Places named after St. Thérèse

Tomb in the Basilica of St. Thérèse, Lisieux.
Main article: List of places named after St. Thérèse of Lisieux

A number of locations, churches, and schools throughout the world are named after Saint Thérèse.

The Basilica of St. Thérèse in her home town of Lisieux was consecrated on 11 July 1954; it has become a centre for pilgrims from all over the world. It was originally dedicated in 1937 by Cardinal Pacelli, later Pope Pius XII. The basilica can seat 4,000 people.[96]

Devotees of St. Thérèse

Main article: List of devotees of St. Thérèse of Lisieux

Over the years, a number of prominent people have become devotees of St. Thérèse. These include:

  • Albino Luciani – Pope John Paul I
  • Henri Bergson – Nobel prize winner
  • Padre Pio of Pietrelcina – Italian saint
  • Ada Negri – Italian poet
  • Giuseppe Moscati – Italian saint
  • Maria Valtorta – Catholic mystic
  • Paul James Francis Wattson – Founder of the Atonement Friars[citation needed]
  • Francis Bourne – British Cardinal
  • Thomas Merton – monk and writer
  • Dorothy Day – founder of the Catholic Worker movement
  • Georges Bernanos – French author
  • Jack Kerouac – American author
  • Saint Maximilian Kolbe – Polish martyr of Auschwitz
  • Jean Vanier – founder of l’Arche
  • Édith Piaf – French singer
  • Blessed Teresa of Calcutta – Foundress of the Missionaries of Charity

Bibliography

  • Thérèse of Lisieux: a biography by Patricia O’Connor, 1984 ISBN 0-87973-607-0
  • Thérèse of Lisieux: the way to love by Ann Laforest, 2000 ISBN 1-58051-082-5
  • The Story of a Soul by T. N. Taylor, 2006 ISBN 1-4068-0771-0
  • Thérèse of Lisieux by Joan Monahan, 2003 ISBN 0-8091-6710-7
  • Thérèse of Lisieux: God’s gentle warrior by Thomas R. Nevin, 2006 ISBN 0-19-530721-6
  • Therese and Lisieux by Pierre Descouvemont, Helmuth Nils Loose, 1996 ISBN 0-8028-3836-7
  • St. Thérèse of Lisieux: a transformation in Christ by Thomas Keating, 2001 ISBN 1-930051-20-4
  • Thérèse of Lisieux: Through Love and Suffering, by Murchadh O Madagain, 2003 ISBN
  • 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Thérèse of Lisieux by Constant Tonnelier, 2011 ISBN 978-1-56548-391-0

See also

  • Carmelite Rule of St. Albert
  • Book of the First Monks
  • Constitutions of the Carmelite Order
  • Byzantine Discalced Carmelites
  • Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites
  • National Shrine of the Little Flower

References

  1. ^ Guy Gaucher, The Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux, p 211, ISBN 0-232-51713-4
  2. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux: God’s gentle warrior by Thomas R. Nevin, 2006 ISBN 0-19-530721-6 page 26
  3. ^ a b Guy Gaucher, The Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux, p.2
  4. ^ Vatican website: Proclamation as Doctor of the Church
  5. ^ Venerable and to-be-Blessed Zelie and Louis Martin: Their Lives
  6. ^ Therese and Lisieux, Pierre Descouvement, p.14
  7. ^ Ida Gorres, The Hidden Face p.41-42
  8. ^ Descouvement, Therese and Lisieux, p.24
  9. ^ Gaucher, Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux, p.19
  10. ^ Ordinary Suffering of Extraordinary Saints by Vincent J. O’Malley, 1999 ISBN 0-87973-893-6 page 38
  11. ^ The Hidden Face p. 66
  12. ^ Guy Gaucher The Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux
  13. ^ Summarium 1 1914
  14. ^ The Hidden Face , Ida Gorres p.73
  15. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux: a biography by Patricia O’Connor, 1984 ISBN 0-87973-607-0 page 19
  16. ^ Pierre Descouvemont and Helmuth Nils Loose, “Therese and Lisieux”, p. 53, Toronto, 1996
  17. ^ Gaucher, Spiritual Journey of Thérèse of Lisieux, p.47
  18. ^ a b Thérèse of Lisieux: a biography by Patricia O’Connor, 1984 ISBN 0-87973-607-0 page 22
  19. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux: the way to love by Ann Laforest, 2000 ISBN 1-58051-082-5 page 15
  20. ^ The Story of a Soul by T. N. Taylor, 2006 ISBN 1-4068-0771-0 page 32
  21. ^ Manuscript A, chapter 3, Story of a Soul.
  22. ^ Therese and Lisieux, Pierre Descouvement, p 52
  23. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux by Joan Monahan, 2003 ISBN 0-8091-6710-7 page 45
  24. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux by Joan Monahan, 2003 ISBN 0-8091-6710-7 page 54
  25. ^ Harrison, p.61
  26. ^ Gorres, The Hidden Face, p.112
  27. ^ Ida Friederike Görres, “The hidden face: a study of St. Thérèse of Lisieux“, p. 83, London, 2003
  28. ^ Karen Armstrong, “The Gospel according to woman: Christianity’s creation of the sex war in the West“, p. 234, London, 1986
  29. ^ Monica Furlong Thérèse of Lisieux, p.9, London, 2001
  30. ^ Jean François Six, La verdadera infancia de Teresa de Lisieux: neurosis y santidad, passim, Spain, 1976
  31. ^ Kathryn Harrison, Saint Therese of Lisieux , p 21 Weidenfeld & Nicholson 2003
  32. ^ The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis, 2003 Dover Press ISBN 0-486-43185-1
  33. ^ Ida Gorres, The Hidden Face, p. 126-127
  34. ^ Ida Gorres, The Hidden Face, p. 149
  35. ^ Thérèse of Lisieux: a biography, by Patricia O’Connor, 1984, p. 34, ISBN 0-87973-607-0
  36. ^ Kathryn Harrison, p.69
  37. ^ Gorres, p.153
  38. ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy people of the world Published by ABC-CLIO, 2004, ISBN 1-57607-355-6
  39. ^ Gaucher, Spiritual Journey of Therese of Lisieux, p.77
  40. ^ Gorres, The Hidden Face,p.153-154
  41. ^ Clarke, John O.C.D. trans. The Story of a Soul: The Autobiography of St. Thérèse of the Child Jesus, 3rd Edition (Washington DC: Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1996)
  42. ^ Gorres, p.202
  43. ^ The Story of a Soul by T. N. Taylor, 2006 ISBN 1-4068-0771-0 page 63
  44. ^ Gaucher, Spiritual Journey of Thérèse of Lisieux, p.92
  45. ^ Gorres, p.260
  46. ^ Gaucher p.99
  47. ^ Harrison, p.91
  48. ^ Gorres, p.250-251
  49. ^ Gaucher, p.109
  50. ^ Gorres, p.258
  51. ^ Last Conversations, 5 August 1897
  52. ^ Gorres, p.261
  53. ^ Harrison p.97
  54. ^ Harrison, p.98
  55. ^ Gaucher p.118
  56. ^ Harrison, p.108
  57. ^ General Correspondence, volume 2, p.762
  58. ^ Gorres, p.114,
  59. ^ Harrison, p.111
  60. ^ A Memoir of my Sister, Céline Martin
  61. ^ Kathryn Harrison, p.111
  62. ^ The Hidden Face, p.401
  63. ^ Harrison, p.118
  64. ^ Gorres, p.331
  65. ^ p.219 Descouvement, Thérèse and Lisieux
  66. ^ Gorres, p.188
  67. ^ Gorres, p.189
  68. ^ The Photo Album of St. Therese of Lisieux; commentary, Francois de Sainte-Marie, O.C.D.; translator, Peter-Thomas Rohrbach, O.C.D. New York: P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1962, p. 145.
  69. ^ The making of a social disease: tuberculosis in nineteenth-century France by David S. Barnes 1995 ISBN 0-520-08772-0 page 66
  70. ^ Therese of Lisieux CTS Stories Great Saints Series by Vernon Johnson. Pg 54
  71. ^ Therese of Lisieux CTS Stories Great Saints Series by Vernon Johnston. Pg. 62
  72. ^ Therese and Lisieux by Pierre Descouvemont, Helmuth Nils Loose, 1996 ISBN 0-8028-3836-7 page 245
  73. ^ Collected poems of St Thérèse of Lisieux by Saint Thérèse (de Lisieux), Alan Bancroft 2001 ISBN 0-85244-547-4 page 75
  74. ^ Ida Friederike Gorres p.164 The Hidden Face ISBN 0-89870-927-X
  75. ^ Thomas R. Nevin, Thérèse of Lisieux: God’s gentle warrior Oxford University Press US, 2006 ISBN 0-19-530721-6 pages 184 and 228
  76. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Reparation
  77. ^ Dorothy Scallan, The Holy Man of Tours (1990) ISBN 0-89555-390-2
  78. ^ Therese joined this confraternity on April 26, 1885. See Derniers Entretiens, Desclee de Brouwer/Editions Du Cerf, 1971, Volume I, p. 483
  79. ^ Paulinus Redmond, 1995 Louis and Zelie Martin: The Seed and the Root of the Little Flower Cimino Press ISBN 1-899163-08-5 page 257
  80. ^ Ann Laforest, Thérèse of Lisieux: the way to love Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2000 ISBN 1-58051-082-5 page 61
  81. ^ Catholic.org
  82. ^ Pierre Descouvemont, Thérèse and Lisieux Eerdmans Publishing, 1996 ISBN 0-8028-3836-7 page 137
  83. ^ http://www.carmel.asso.fr/-La-petite-voie-.html?lang=fr
  84. ^ Clarke, John O.C.D. trans. The Story of a Soul: The Autobiography of St. Thérèse of the Child Jesus, 3rd Edition (Washington DC: Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1996, p. 207).
  85. ^ “The Power of Confidence: Genesis and Structure of the “Way of Spiritual Childhood” of St. Therese of Lisieux. Staten Island, NY: Alba House (Society of St. Paul), 1988, p. 5
  86. ^ Therese’s prayer
  87. ^ On the meaning and importance of Therese’poems we can made ​​to the work of Bernard Bonnejean,La Poésie thérésienne, prefaced by Constant Tonnelier, Paris, Éditions du Cerf, 2006, II-292 p. ,
    • British National Formulary 55, March 2008; ISBN 978 085369 776 3, in French.
  88. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 104
  89. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 141
  90. ^ “Béatification à Lisieux des parents de sainte Thérèse” (in French). L’essemtiel des saints et des prénoms. Prenommer. 19 October 2008. http://www.prenommer.com/a-la-une-paris/beatification-a-lisieux-des-parents-de-sainte-therese/. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  91. ^ “God’s Word renews Christian life”. l’Osservatore Romano (Holy See). 22 October 2008. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/or/or_eng/043w01.pdf. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  92. ^ Saint Therese of Lisieux: A Gateway
  93. ^ Tens of Thousands Flock to St. Thérèse Relics, By Anna Arco, 25 September 2009, The Catholic Herald (UK) [1]
  94. ^ http://www.thereseoflisieux.org/st-thereses-relics-visit-south/
  95. ^ Fr. George Thalian: The Great Archbishop Mar Augustine Kandathil, D. D.: the Outline of a Vocation, Mar Louis Memorial Press, 1961. (Postscript) (PDF)
  96. ^ Saint-Theres.org
  • Archives of the Carmel of Lisieux translated into English – official Little Flower Web site – 10,000 pages and 5,000 photos
  • Web site of the Pilgrimage Office at Lisieux
  • Web site about the life, writings, spirituality,and mission of Saint Therese of Lisieux
  • The miraculous intercession of St Therese in the lives of four Mystics
  • Sainte Thérèse de Lisieux, biographie
  • The Story of a Soul (L’Histoire d’une Âme): The Autobiography of St. Thérèse (early edition heavily edited by Thérèse’s sister)
  • http://www.saintetherese.org (Sainte Thérèse – Mansourieh / Liban) Parish site in the Lebanese language
  • Pope John Paul II’s Divini Amoris Scientia in English
  • Catholic Encyclopedia article
  • Works by Thérèse de Lisieux at Project Gutenberg early 20th century editions, heavily edited by Therese’s sister
  • Second Class Relic of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux
  • Saint Thérèse Memorial Page at FindaGrave
  • St. Thérèse’s relics at Hungary
  • A collection of pictures of Thérèse, on the Lisieux Sanctuary website
  • Saint Theresa’s Shrine, first shine dedicated to the saint in the world

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St. Therese of Lisieux

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